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J Virol. Jul 1994; 68(7): 4384–4391.
PMCID: PMC236362

The 5'-untranslated regions of picornavirus RNAs contain independent functional domains essential for RNA replication and translation.

Abstract

The role of the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) in the replication of enteroviruses has been studied by using a series of poliovirus type 3 (PV3) replicons containing the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene in which the 5'UTR was replaced by the 5'UTR of either coxsackievirus B4 or human rhinovirus 14 or composite 5'UTRs derived from sequences of PV3, human rhinovirus 14, coxsackievirus B4, or encephalomyocarditis virus. The results indicate that efficient replication of an enterovirus genome requires a compatible interaction between the 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure and the coding and/or 3'-noncoding regions of the genome. A crucial determinant of this interaction is the stem-loop formed by nucleotides 46 to 81 (stem-loop d). The independence of the cloverleaf structure formed by the 5'-terminal 88 nucleotides and the ribosome landing pad or internal ribosome entry site (IRES) was investigated by constructing a 5'UTR composed of the PV3 cloverleaf and the IRES from encephalomyocarditis virus. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene-containing replicons and viruses containing this recombinant 5'UTR showed levels of replication similar to those of the corresponding genomes containing the complete PV3 5'UTR, indicating that the cloverleaf and the IRES may be regarded as functionally independent and nonoverlapping elements.

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Selected References

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