• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of mmbrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. Dec 1997; 61(4): 442–455.
PMCID: PMC232620

Rolling-circle replication of bacterial plasmids.

Abstract

Many bacterial plasmids replicate by a rolling-circle (RC) mechanism. Their replication properties have many similarities to as well as significant differences from those of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) coliphages, which also replicate by an RC mechanism. Studies on a large number of RC plasmids have revealed that they fall into several families based on homology in their initiator proteins and leading-strand origins. The leading-strand origins contain distinct sequences that are required for binding and nicking by the Rep proteins. Leading-strand origins also contain domains that are required for the initiation and termination of replication. RC plasmids generate ssDNA intermediates during replication, since their lagging-strand synthesis does not usually initiate until the leading strand has been almost fully synthesized. The leading- and lagging-strand origins are distinct, and the displaced leading-strand DNA is converted to the double-stranded form by using solely the host proteins. The Rep proteins encoded by RC plasmids contain specific domains that are involved in their origin binding and nicking activities. The replication and copy number of RC plasmids, in general, are regulated at the level of synthesis of their Rep proteins, which are usually rate limiting for replication. Some RC Rep proteins are known to be inactivated after supporting one round of replication. A number of in vitro replication systems have been developed for RC plasmids and have provided insight into the mechanism of plasmid RC replication.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (194K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andrup L, Damgaard J, Wassermann K, Boe L, Madsen SM, Hansen FG. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis plasmid pTX14-3 and its correlation with biological properties. Plasmid. 1994 Jan;31(1):72–88. [PubMed]
  • Aoki T, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Kono M. Complete nucleotide sequence of pTZ12, a chloramphenicol-resistance plasmid of Bacillus subtilis. Gene. 1987;51(1):107–111. [PubMed]
  • Baas PD. DNA replication of single-stranded Escherichia coli DNA phages. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1985 Jun 24;825(2):111–139. [PubMed]
  • Baas PD, Jansz HS. Single-stranded DNA phage origins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1988;136:31–70. [PubMed]
  • Backert S, Meissner K, Börner T. Unique features of the mitochondrial rolling circle-plasmid mp1 from the higher plant Chenopodium album (L.). Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Feb 1;25(3):582–589. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bernhard K, Schrempf H, Goebel W. Bacteriocin and antibiotic resistance plasmids in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1978 Feb;133(2):897–903. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berns KI. Parvovirus replication. Microbiol Rev. 1990 Sep;54(3):316–329. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bidnenko VE, Gruss A, Ehrlich SD. Mutation in the plasmid pUB110 Rep protein affects termination of rolling circle replication. J Bacteriol. 1993 Sep;175(17):5611–5616. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Birch P, Khan SA. Replication of single-stranded plasmid pT181 DNA in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 1;89(1):290–294. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boe L, Gros MF, te Riele H, Ehrlich SD, Gruss A. Replication origins of single-stranded-DNA plasmid pUB110. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jun;171(6):3366–3372. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boe L, Nielsen TT, Madsen SM, Andrup L, Bolander G. Cloning and characterization of two plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis in Bacillus subtilis. Plasmid. 1991 May;25(3):190–197. [PubMed]
  • Bouia A, Bringel F, Frey L, Kammerer B, Belarbi A, Guyonvarch A, Hubert JC. Structural organization of pLP1, a cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 1904. Plasmid. 1989 Nov;22(3):185–192. [PubMed]
  • Brehm JK, Pennock A, Bullman HM, Young M, Oultram JD, Minton NP. Physical characterization of the replication origin of the cryptic plasmid pCB101 isolated from Clostridium butyricum NCIB 7423. Plasmid. 1992 Jul;28(1):1–13. [PubMed]
  • Brito L, Vieira G, Santos MA, Paveia H. Nucleotide sequence analysis of pOg32, a cryptic plasmid from Leuconostoc oenos. Plasmid. 1996 Jul;36(1):49–54. [PubMed]
  • Bron S, Bosma P, van Belkum M, Luxen E. Stability function in the Bacillus subtilis plasmid pTA 1060. Plasmid. 1987 Jul;18(1):8–15. [PubMed]
  • Chaouni LB, Etienne J, Greenland T, Vandenesch F. Nucleic acid sequence and affiliation of pLUG10, a novel cadmium resistance plasmid from Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Plasmid. 1996 Jul;36(1):1–8. [PubMed]
  • Clark BD, Boyle TM, Chu CY, Dean DH. Restriction endonuclease mapping of three plasmids from Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. Gene. 1985;36(1-2):169–171. [PubMed]
  • Coffey A, Harrington A, Kearney K, Daly C, Fitzgerald G. Nucleotide sequence and structural organization of the small, broad-host-range plasmid pCI411 from Leuconostoc lactis 533. Microbiology. 1994 Sep;140(Pt 9):2263–2269. [PubMed]
  • Colombo D, Iordanescu S, Gennaro ML. Replication enhancer requirement for recognition of heterologous replication origin by an initiator protein. Plasmid. 1995 May;33(3):232–234. [PubMed]
  • Cossons N, Zannis-Hadjopoulos M, Tam P, Astell CR, Faust EA. The effect of regulatory sequence elements upon the initiation of DNA replication of the minute virus of mice. Virology. 1996 Oct 1;224(1):320–325. [PubMed]
  • Darabi A, Forough R, Bhardwaj G, Watabe M, Goodarzi G, Gross SC, Watabe K. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the minimal replicon of the low-copy-number plasmid pBS2. Plasmid. 1989 Nov;22(3):281–286. [PubMed]
  • de la Campa AG, del Solar GH, Espinosa M. Initiation of replication of plasmid pLS1. The initiator protein RepB acts on two distant DNA regions. J Mol Biol. 1990 May 20;213(2):247–262. [PubMed]
  • del Solar G, Acebo P, Espinosa M. Replication control of plasmid pLS1: efficient regulation of plasmid copy number is exerted by the combined action of two plasmid components, CopG and RNA II. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Dec;18(5):913–924. [PubMed]
  • del Solar G, Acebo P, Espinosa M. Replication control of plasmid pLS1: the antisense RNA II and the compact rnaII region are involved in translational regulation of the initiator RepB synthesis. Mol Microbiol. 1997 Jan;23(1):95–108. [PubMed]
  • del Solar G, Diaz R, Espinosa M. Replication of the streptococcal plasmid pMV158 and derivatives in cell-free extracts of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1987 Mar;206(3):428–435. [PubMed]
  • del Solar G, Kramer G, Ballester S, Espinosa M. Replication of the promiscuous plasmid pLS1: a region encompassing the minus origin of replication is associated with stable plasmid inheritance. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 Oct;241(1-2):97–105. [PubMed]
  • del Solar G, Moscoso M, Espinosa M. Rolling circle-replicating plasmids from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: a wall falls. Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(5):789–796. [PubMed]
  • Dempsey LA, Birch P, Khan SA. Six amino acids determine the sequence-specific DNA binding and replication specificity of the initiator proteins of the pT181 family. J Biol Chem. 1992 Dec 5;267(34):24538–24543. [PubMed]
  • Dempsey LA, Birch P, Khan SA. Uncoupling of the DNA topoisomerase and replication activities of an initiator protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 1;89(7):3083–3087. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dempsey LA, Zhao AC, Khan SA. Localization of the start sites of lagging-strand replication of rolling-circle plasmids from gram-positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Feb;15(4):679–687. [PubMed]
  • De Rossi E, Milano A, Brigidi P, Bini F, Riccardi G. Structural organization of pBC1, a cryptic plasmid from Bacillus coagulans. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jan;174(2):638–642. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Devine KM, Hogan ST, Higgins DG, McConnell DJ. Replication and segregational stability of Bacillus plasmid pBAA1. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):1166–1172. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Díaz A, Lacks SA, López P. Multiple roles for DNA polymerase I in establishment and replication of the promiscuous plasmid pLS1. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Nov;14(4):773–783. [PubMed]
  • Ehret M, Matzura H. Replication control of the Staphylococcus aureus chloramphenicol resistance plasmids pC223 and pUB112 in Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Mar 25;16(5):2045–2062. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eisenberg S, Scott JF, Kronberg A. Enzymatic replication of phiX174 duplex circles: continuous synthesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979;43(Pt 1):295–302. [PubMed]
  • Erauso G, Marsin S, Benbouzid-Rollet N, Baucher MF, Barbeyron T, Zivanovic Y, Prieur D, Forterre P. Sequence of plasmid pGT5 from the archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi: evidence for rolling-circle replication in a hyperthermophile. J Bacteriol. 1996 Jun;178(11):3232–3237. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Espinosa M, del Solar G, Rojo F, Alonso JC. Plasmid rolling circle replication and its control. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1995 Aug 1;130(2-3):111–120. [PubMed]
  • Fernandez-Gonzalez C, Cadenas RF, Noirot-Gros MF, Martin JF, Gil JA. Characterization of a region of plasmid pBL1 of Brevibacterium lactofermentum involved in replication via the rolling circle model. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;176(11):3154–3161. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fremaux C, Aigle M, Lonvaud-Funel A. Sequence analysis of Leuconostoc oenos DNA: organization of pLo13, a cryptic plasmid. Plasmid. 1993 Nov;30(3):212–223. [PubMed]
  • Galli DM, LeBlanc DJ. Characterization of pVT736-1, a rolling-circle plasmid from the gram-negative bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Plasmid. 1994 Mar;31(2):148–157. [PubMed]
  • Galli DM, Leblanc DJ. Transcriptional analysis of rolling circle replicating plasmid pVT736-1: evidence for replication control by antisense RNA. J Bacteriol. 1995 Aug;177(15):4474–4480. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gennaro ML. Genetic evidence for replication enhancement from a distance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jun 15;90(12):5529–5533. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gennaro ML, Iordanescu S, Novick RP, Murray RW, Steck TR, Khan SA. Functional organization of the plasmid pT181 replication origin. J Mol Biol. 1989 Jan 20;205(2):355–362. [PubMed]
  • Gennaro ML, Novick RP. An enhancer of DNA replication. J Bacteriol. 1988 Dec;170(12):5709–5717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grinius L, Dreguniene G, Goldberg EB, Liao CH, Projan SJ. A staphylococcal multidrug resistance gene product is a member of a new protein family. Plasmid. 1992 Mar;27(2):119–129. [PubMed]
  • Gros MF, te Riele H, Ehrlich SD. Rolling circle replication of single-stranded DNA plasmid pC194. EMBO J. 1987 Dec 1;6(12):3863–3869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gros MF, te Riele H, Ehrlich SD. Replication origin of a single-stranded DNA plasmid pC194. EMBO J. 1989 Sep;8(9):2711–2716. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gruss A, Ehrlich SD. The family of highly interrelated single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid plasmids. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Jun;53(2):231–241. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gruss AD, Ross HF, Novick RP. Functional analysis of a palindromic sequence required for normal replication of several staphylococcal plasmids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(8):2165–2169. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hara T, Nagatomo S, Ogata S, Ueda S. Molecular structure of the replication origin of a Bacillus subtilis (natto) plasmid, pUH1. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Jun;57(6):1838–1841. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hasnain S, Thomas CM. Two related rolling circle replication plasmids from salt-tolerant bacteria. Plasmid. 1996 Nov;36(3):191–199. [PubMed]
  • Hayes F, Daly C, Fitzgerald GF. Identification of the Minimal Replicon of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis UC317 Plasmid pCI305. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jan;56(1):202–209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henriquez V, Milisavljevic V, Kahn JD, Gennaro ML. Sequence and structure of cmp, the replication enhancer of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pT181. Gene. 1993 Nov 30;134(1):93–98. [PubMed]
  • Holmes ML, Pfeifer F, Dyall-Smith ML. Analysis of the halobacterial plasmid pHK2 minimal replicon. Gene. 1995 Feb 3;153(1):117–121. [PubMed]
  • Hoshino T, Ikeda T, Furukawa K, Tomizuka N. Genetic relationship between pUB110 and antibiotic-resistant plasmids obtained from thermophilic bacilli. Can J Microbiol. 1985 Jul;31(7):614–619. [PubMed]
  • Ilyina TV, Koonin EV. Conserved sequence motifs in the initiator proteins for rolling circle DNA replication encoded by diverse replicons from eubacteria, eucaryotes and archaebacteria. Nucleic Acids Res. 1992 Jul 11;20(13):3279–3285. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iordanescu S. Specificity of the interactions between the Rep proteins and the origins of replication of Staphylococcus aureus plasmids pT181 and pC221. Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Jun;217(2-3):481–487. [PubMed]
  • Iordanescu S. Characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus chromosomal gene pcrA, identified by mutations affecting plasmid pT181 replication. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 Oct;241(1-2):185–192. [PubMed]
  • Iordanescu S. Plasmid pT181 replication is decreased at high levels of RepC per plasmid copy. Mol Microbiol. 1995 May;16(3):477–484. [PubMed]
  • Iordanescu S, Basheer R. The Staphylococcus aureus mutation pcrA3 leads to the accumulation of pT181 replication initiation complexes. J Mol Biol. 1991 Oct 20;221(4):1183–1189. [PubMed]
  • Iordanescu S, Projan SJ. Replication termination for staphylococcal plasmids: plasmids pT181 and pC221 cross-react in the termination process. J Bacteriol. 1988 Aug;170(8):3427–3434. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jin R, Rasooly A, Novick RP. In vitro inhibitory activity of RepC/C*, the inactivated form of the pT181 plasmid initiation protein, RepC. J Bacteriol. 1997 Jan;179(1):141–147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jin R, Zhou X, Novick RP. The inactive pT181 initiator heterodimer, RepC/C, binds but fails to induce melting of the plasmid replication origin. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 6;271(49):31086–31091. [PubMed]
  • Josson K, Soetaert P, Michiels F, Joos H, Mahillon J. Lactobacillus hilgardii plasmid pLAB1000 consists of two functional cassettes commonly found in other gram-positive organisms. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):3089–3099. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Josson K, Scheirlinck T, Michiels F, Platteeuw C, Stanssens P, Joos H, Dhaese P, Zabeau M, Mahillon J. Characterization of a gram-positive broad-host-range plasmid isolated from Lactobacillus hilgardii. Plasmid. 1989 Jan;21(1):9–20. [PubMed]
  • Kataoka M, Kiyose YM, Michisuji Y, Horiguchi T, Seki T, Yoshida T. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces nigrifaciens plasmid, pSN22: genetic organization and correlation with genetic properties. Plasmid. 1994 Jul;32(1):55–69. [PubMed]
  • Kaul S, Mohanty BK, Sahoo T, Patel I, Khan SA, Bastia D. The replication terminator protein of the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis functions as a polar contrahelicase in gram-negative Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Nov 8;91(23):11143–11147. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kendall KJ, Cohen SN. Complete nucleotide sequence of the Streptomyces lividans plasmid pIJ101 and correlation of the sequence with genetic properties. J Bacteriol. 1988 Oct;170(10):4634–4651. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khan SA. Mechanism of replication and copy number control of plasmids in gram-positive bacteria. Genet Eng (N Y) 1996;18:183–201. [PubMed]
  • Khan SA, Adler GK, Novick RP. Functional origin of replication of pT181 plasmid DNA is contained within a 168-base-pair segment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Aug;79(15):4580–4584. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khan SA, Carleton SM, Novick RP. Replication of plasmid pT181 DNA in vitro: requirement for a plasmid-encoded product. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Aug;78(8):4902–4906. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khan SA, Murray RW, Koepsel RR. Mechanism of plasmid pT181 DNA replication. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Dec 20;951(2-3):375–381. [PubMed]
  • Khan SA, Novick RP. Structural analysis of plasmid pSN2 in Staphylococcus aureus: no involvement in enterotoxin B production. J Bacteriol. 1982 Feb;149(2):642–649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Khan SA, Novick RP. Complete nucleotide sequence of pT181, a tetracycline-resistance plasmid from Staphylococcus aureus. Plasmid. 1983 Nov;10(3):251–259. [PubMed]
  • Kieser T, Hopwood DA, Wright HM, Thompson CJ. pIJ101, a multi-copy broad host-range Streptomyces plasmid: functional analysis and development of DNA cloning vectors. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;185(2):223–228. [PubMed]
  • King KW, Dybvig K. Nucleotide sequence of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies Mycoides plasmid pKMK1. Plasmid. 1992 Jul;28(1):86–91. [PubMed]
  • Kleanthous H, Clayton CL, Tabaqchali S. Characterization of a plasmid from Helicobacter pylori encoding a replication protein common to plasmids in gram-positive bacteria. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Oct;5(10):2377–2389. [PubMed]
  • Kodaira K, Oki M, Taketo A, Yasukawa H, Masamune Y. Determination of the single strand origin of Shigella sonnei plasmid pKYM. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 Jan 25;1260(2):183–190. [PubMed]
  • Koepsel RR, Khan SA. Cleavage of single-stranded DNA by plasmid pT181-encoded RepC protein. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 May 26;15(10):4085–4097. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koepsel RR, Khan SA. Static and initiator protein-enhanced bending of DNA at a replication origin. Science. 1986 Sep 19;233(4770):1316–1318. [PubMed]
  • Koepsel RR, Murray RW, Khan SA. Sequence-specific interaction between the replication initiator protein of plasmid pT181 and its origin of replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(15):5484–5488. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Koepsel RR, Murray RW, Rosenblum WD, Khan SA. Purification of pT181-encoded repC protein required for the initiation of plasmid replication. J Biol Chem. 1985 Jul 15;260(14):8571–8577. [PubMed]
  • Koepsel RR, Murray RW, Rosenblum WD, Khan SA. The replication initiator protein of plasmid pT181 has sequence-specific endonuclease and topoisomerase-like activities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct;82(20):6845–6849. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kramer MG, del Solar G, Espinosa M. Lagging-strand origins of the promiscuous plasmid pMV158: physical and functional characterization. Microbiology. 1995 Mar;141(Pt 3):655–662. [PubMed]
  • Kramer MG, Khan SA, Espinosa M. Plasmid rolling circle replication: identification of the RNA polymerase-directed primer RNA and requirement for DNA polymerase I for lagging strand synthesis. EMBO J. 1997 Sep 15;16(18):5784–5795. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LeBlanc DJ, Lee LN, Abu-Al-Jaibat A. Molecular, genetic, and functional analysis of the basic replicon of pVA380-1, a plasmid of oral streptococcal origin. Plasmid. 1992 Sep;28(2):130–145. [PubMed]
  • Leenhouts KJ, Tolner B, Bron S, Kok J, Venema G, Seegers JF. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the broad-host-range lactococcal plasmid pWVO1. Plasmid. 1991 Jul;26(1):55–66. [PubMed]
  • Longley M, MacDonald R, Poulter TM. Characterization of pBP614, a putative rolling-circle plasmid from Bacillus popilliae. Plasmid. 1997;37(1):15–21. [PubMed]
  • MacDougall J, Margarita D, Saint Girons I. Homology of a plasmid from the spirochete Treponema denticola with the single-stranded DNA plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1992 Apr;174(8):2724–2728. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Madsen SM, Andrup L, Boe L. Fine mapping and DNA sequence of replication functions of Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid pTX14-3. Plasmid. 1993 Sep;30(2):119–130. [PubMed]
  • Mahillon J, Seurinck J. Complete nucleotide sequence of pGI2, a Bacillus thuringiensis plasmid containing Tn4430. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Dec 23;16(24):11827–11828. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Manch-Citron JN, Gennaro ML, Majumder S, Novick RP. RepC is rate limiting for pT181 plasmid replication. Plasmid. 1986 Sep;16(2):108–115. [PubMed]
  • McDowell DG, Mann NH. Characterization and sequence analysis of a small plasmid from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain HD1-DIPEL. Plasmid. 1991 Mar;25(2):113–120. [PubMed]
  • McKenzie T, Hoshino T, Tanaka T, Sueoka N. The nucleotide sequence of pUB110: some salient features in relation to replication and its regulation. Plasmid. 1986 Mar;15(2):93–103. [PubMed]
  • Meijer WJ, Venema G, Bron S. Characterization of single strand origins of cryptic rolling-circle plasmids from Bacillus subtilis. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Feb 25;23(4):612–619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moscoso M, del Solar G, Espinosa M. In vitro recognition of the replication origin of pLS1 and of plasmids of the pLS1 family by the RepB initiator protein. J Bacteriol. 1995 Dec;177(24):7041–7049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moscoso M, del Solar G, Espinosa M. Specific nicking-closing activity of the initiator of replication protein RepB of plasmid pMV158 on supercoiled or single-stranded DNA. J Biol Chem. 1995 Feb 24;270(8):3772–3779. [PubMed]
  • Müller AK, Rojo F, Alonso JC. The level of the pUB110 replication initiator protein is autoregulated, which provides an additional control for plasmid copy number. Nucleic Acids Res. 1995 Jun 11;23(11):1894–1900. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Muller RE, Ano T, Imanaka T, Aiba S. Complete nucleotide sequences of Bacillus plasmids pUB110dB, pRBH1 and its copy mutants. Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Jan;202(1):169–171. [PubMed]
  • Murai M, Miyashita H, Araki H, Seki T, Oshima Y. Molecular structure of the replication origin of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens plasmid pFTB14. Mol Gen Genet. 1987 Nov;210(1):92–100. [PubMed]
  • Murray RW, Koepsel RR, Khan SA. Synthesis of single-stranded plasmid pT181 DNA in vitro. Initiation and termination of DNA replication. J Biol Chem. 1989 Jan 15;264(2):1051–1057. [PubMed]
  • Muth G, Farr M, Hartmann V, Wohlleben W. Streptomyces ghanaensis plasmid pSG5: nucleotide sequence analysis of the self-transmissible minimal replicon and characterization of the replication mode. Plasmid. 1995 Mar;33(2):113–126. [PubMed]
  • Nakahama K, Yasukawa H, Kimura T, Mizuno K, Hiraiwa T, Ozaki E, Masamune Y. Synthesis of RepK of rolling circle plasmid pKYM is regulated by countertranscript and HU protein. DNA Res. 1997 Jun 30;4(3):199–204. [PubMed]
  • Noirot P, Bargonetti J, Novick RP. Initiation of rolling-circle replication in pT181 plasmid: initiator protein enhances cruciform extrusion at the origin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(21):8560–8564. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noirot-Gros MF, Bidnenko V, Ehrlich SD. Active site of the replication protein of the rolling circle plasmid pC194. EMBO J. 1994 Sep 15;13(18):4412–4420. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Noirot-Gros MF, Ehrlich SD. Change of a catalytic reaction carried out by a DNA replication protein. Science. 1996 Nov 1;274(5288):777–780. [PubMed]
  • Novick RP. Staphylococcal plasmids and their replication. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1989;43:537–565. [PubMed]
  • Novick RP, Iordanescu S, Projan SJ, Kornblum J, Edelman I. pT181 plasmid replication is regulated by a countertranscript-driven transcriptional attenuator. Cell. 1989 Oct 20;59(2):395–404. [PubMed]
  • Pérez-Martín J, del Solar GH, de la Campa AG, Espinosa M. Three regions in the DNA of plasmid pLS1 show sequence-directed static bending. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Oct 11;16(19):9113–9126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perkins DR, Barnum SR. DNA sequence and analysis of a cryptic 4.2-kb plasmid from the filamentous cyanobacterium, Plectonema sp. strain PCC 6402. Plasmid. 1992 Sep;28(2):170–176. [PubMed]
  • Perkins JB, Youngman P. Streptococcus plasmid pAM alpha 1 is a composite of two separable replicons, one of which is closely related to Bacillus plasmid pBC16. J Bacteriol. 1983 Aug;155(2):607–615. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pigac J, Vujaklija D, Toman Z, Gamulin V, Schrempf H. Structural instability of a bifunctional plasmid pZG1 and single-stranded DNA formation in Streptomyces. Plasmid. 1988 May;19(3):222–230. [PubMed]
  • Pillidge CJ, Cambourn WM, Pearce LE. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of pWC1, a pC194-type rolling circle replicon in Lactococcus lactis. Plasmid. 1996 Mar;35(2):131–140. [PubMed]
  • Pouwels PH, van Luijk N, Leer RJ, Posno M. Control of replication of the Lactobacillus pentosus plasmid p353-2: evidence for a mechanism involving transcriptional attenuation of the gene coding for the replication protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1994 Mar;242(5):614–622. [PubMed]
  • Projan SJ, Novick R. Comparative analysis of five related Staphylococcal plasmids. Plasmid. 1988 May;19(3):203–221. [PubMed]
  • Projan SJ, Monod M, Narayanan CS, Dubnau D. Replication properties of pIM13, a naturally occurring plasmid found in Bacillus subtilis, and of its close relative pE5, a plasmid native to Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1987 Nov;169(11):5131–5139. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Puyet A, del Solar GH, Espinosa M. Identification of the origin and direction of replication of the broad-host-range plasmid pLS1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Jan 11;16(1):115–133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rasooly A, Novick RP. Replication-specific inactivation of the pT181 plasmid initiator protein. Science. 1993 Nov 12;262(5136):1048–1050. [PubMed]
  • Rasooly A, Projan SJ, Novick RP. Plasmids of the pT181 family show replication-specific initiator protein modification. J Bacteriol. 1994 Apr;176(8):2450–2453. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rasooly A, Wang PZ, Novick RP. Replication-specific conversion of the Staphylococcus aureus pT181 initiator protein from an active homodimer to an inactive heterodimer. EMBO J. 1994 Nov 1;13(21):5245–5251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reinberg D, Zipursky SL, Weisbeek P, Brown D, Hurwitz J. Studies on the phi X174 gene A protein-mediated termination of leading strand DNA synthesis. J Biol Chem. 1983 Jan 10;258(1):529–537. [PubMed]
  • Seegers JF, Zhao AC, Meijer WJ, Khan SA, Venema G, Bron S. Structural and functional analysis of the single-strand origin of replication from the lactococcal plasmid pWV01. Mol Gen Genet. 1995 Nov 1;249(1):43–50. [PubMed]
  • Seery LT, Nolan NC, Sharp PM, Devine KM. Comparative analysis of the pC194 group of rolling circle plasmids. Plasmid. 1993 Nov;30(3):185–196. [PubMed]
  • Servín-González L, Sampieri AI, Cabello J, Galván L, Juárez V, Castro C. Sequence and functional analysis of the Streptomyces phaeochromogenes plasmid pJV1 reveals a modular organization of Streptomyces plasmids that replicate by rolling circle. Microbiology. 1995 Oct;141(Pt 10):2499–2510. [PubMed]
  • Servín-González L. Relationship between the replication functions of Streptomyces plasmids pJV1 and pIJ101. Plasmid. 1993 Sep;30(2):131–140. [PubMed]
  • Shishido K, Noguchi N, Kim C, Ando T. Isolation of a tetracycline-resistance plasmid excised from a chromosomal DNA sequence in Bacillus subtilis. Plasmid. 1983 Nov;10(3):224–234. [PubMed]
  • Sims J, Koths K, Dressler D. Single-stranded phage replication: positive- and negative-strand DNA synthesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979;43(Pt 1):349–365. [PubMed]
  • Sioud M, Baldacci G, Forterre P, de Recondo AM. Novobiocin induces accumulation of a single strand of plasmid pGRB-1 in the archaebacterium Halobacterium GRB. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Aug 25;16(16):7833–7842. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Skaugen M. The complete nucleotide sequence of a small cryptic plasmid from Lactobacillus plantarum. Plasmid. 1989 Sep;22(2):175–179. [PubMed]
  • Smith CJ, Rollins LA, Parker AC. Nucleotide sequence determination and genetic analysis of the Bacteroides plasmid, pBI143. Plasmid. 1995 Nov;34(3):211–222. [PubMed]
  • Sozhamannan S, Dabert P, Moretto V, Ehrlich SD, Gruss A. Plus-origin mapping of single-stranded DNA plasmid pE194 and nick site homologies with other plasmids. J Bacteriol. 1990 Aug;172(8):4543–4548. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suzuki I, Kataoka M, Seki T, Yoshida T. Three single-strand origins located on both strands of the Streptomyces rolling circle plasmid pSN22. Plasmid. 1997;37(1):51–64. [PubMed]
  • te Riele H, Michel B, Ehrlich SD. Are single-stranded circles intermediates in plasmid DNA replication? EMBO J. 1986 Mar;5(3):631–637. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • te Riele H, Michel B, Ehrlich SD. Single-stranded plasmid DNA in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Apr;83(8):2541–2545. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thomas CD, Balson DF, Shaw WV. In vitro studies of the initiation of staphylococcal plasmid replication. Specificity of RepD for its origin (oriD) and characterization of the Rep-ori tyrosyl ester intermediate. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 5;265(10):5519–5530. [PubMed]
  • Thomas CD, Jennings LJ. RepD/D*: a protein-DNA adduct arising during plasmid replication. Biochem Soc Trans. 1995 Aug;23(3):442S–442S. [PubMed]
  • Thomas CD, Nikiforov TT, Connolly BA, Shaw WV. Determination of sequence specificity between a plasmid replication initiator protein and the origin of replication. J Mol Biol. 1995 Dec 1;254(3):381–391. [PubMed]
  • Vartholomatos G, Typas MA, Drainas C. An ultraviolet-sensitive mutant of Zymomonas mobilis affecting the stability of its natural plasmid pZMO2. Plasmid. 1993 Jan;29(1):10–18. [PubMed]
  • Vujcic M, Topisirovic L. Molecular analysis of the rolling-circle replicating plasmid pA1 of Lactobacillus plantarum A112. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1993 Jan;59(1):274–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang PZ, Projan SJ, Henriquez V, Novick RP. Specificity of origin recognition by replication initiator protein in plasmids of the pT181 family is determined by a six amino acid residue element. J Mol Biol. 1992 Jan 5;223(1):145–158. [PubMed]
  • Wang PZ, Projan SJ, Henriquez V, Novick RP. Origin recognition specificity in pT181 plasmids is determined by a functionally asymmetric palindromic DNA element. EMBO J. 1993 Jan;12(1):45–52. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu FF, Pearce LE, Yu PL. Genetic analysis of a lactococcal plasmid replicon. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 May;227(1):33–39. [PubMed]
  • Xu W, McFadden BA. Sequence analysis of plasmid pCC5.2 from cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 that replicates by a rolling circle mechanism. Plasmid. 1997;37(2):95–104. [PubMed]
  • Yang X, McFadden BA. The complete DNA sequence and replication analysis of the plasmid pCB2.4 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plasmid. 1994 Mar;31(2):131–137. [PubMed]
  • Yang X, Daniell H, McFadden B. In vitro replication of cyanobacterial plasmids from Synechocystis PCC 6803. Plasmid. 1994 Sep;32(2):195–207. [PubMed]
  • Yang X, McFadden BA. A small plasmid, pCA2.4, from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 encodes a rep protein and replicates by a rolling circle mechanism. J Bacteriol. 1993 Jul;175(13):3981–3991. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yasukawa H, Hase T, Sakai A, Masamune Y. Rolling-circle replication of the plasmid pKYM isolated from a gram-negative bacterium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Nov 15;88(22):10282–10286. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yasukawa H, Ozaki E, Nakahama K, Masamune Y. HU protein binding to the replication origin of the rolling-circle plasmid pKYM enhances DNA replication. Mol Gen Genet. 1997 May 20;254(5):548–554. [PubMed]
  • Zaman S, Radnedge L, Richards H, Ward JM. Analysis of the site for second-strand initiation during replication of the Streptomyces plasmid pIJ101. J Gen Microbiol. 1993 Apr;139(4):669–676. [PubMed]
  • Zaman S, Richards H, Ward J. Identification of the minimal replicon of the streptomycete plasmid pIJ101. Plasmid. 1993 Jan;29(1):57–62. [PubMed]
  • Zhang N, Brooker JD. Characterization, sequence, and replication of a small cryptic plasmid from Selenomonas ruminantium subspecies lactilytica. Plasmid. 1993 Mar;29(2):125–134. [PubMed]
  • Zhang Q, Soares de Oliveira S, Colangeli R, Gennaro ML. Binding of a novel host factor to the pT181 plasmid replication enhancer. J Bacteriol. 1997 Feb;179(3):684–688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhao AC, Khan SA. An 18-base-pair sequence is sufficient for termination of rolling-circle replication of plasmid pT181. J Bacteriol. 1996 Sep;178(17):5222–5228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhao AC, Khan SA. Sequence requirements for the termination of rolling-circle replication of plasmid pT181. Mol Microbiol. 1997 May;24(3):535–544. [PubMed]
  • Zinder ND, Horiuchi K. Multiregulatory element of filamentous bacteriophages. Microbiol Rev. 1985 Jun;49(2):101–106. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zock JM, Birch P, Khan SA. Specificity of RepC protein in plasmid pT181 DNA replication. J Biol Chem. 1990 Feb 25;265(6):3484–3488. [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Conserved Domains
    Conserved Domains
    Link to related CDD entry
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...