• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of mmbrPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMMBR ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. Mar 1997; 61(1): 17–32.
PMCID: PMC232598

Genetic regulation of nitrogen metabolism in the fungi.

Abstract

In the fungi, nitrogen metabolism is controlled by a complex genetic regulatory circuit which ensures the preferential use of primary nitrogen sources and also confers the ability to use many different secondary nitrogen sources when appropriate. Most structural genes encoding nitrogen catabolic enzymes are subject to nitrogen catabolite repression, mediated by positive-acting transcription factors of the GATA family of proteins. However, certain GATA family members, such as the yeast DAL80 factor, act negatively to repress gene expression. Selective expression of the genes which encode enzymes for the metabolism of secondary nitrogen sources is often achieved by induction, mediated by pathway-specific factors, many of which have a GAL4-like C6/Zn2 DNA binding domain. Regulation within the nitrogen circuit also involves specific protein-protein interactions, as exemplified by the specific binding of the negative-acting NMR protein with the positive-acting NIT2 protein of Neurospora crassa. Nitrogen metabolic regulation appears to play a significant role in the pathogenicity of certain animal and plant fungal pathogens.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (207K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andrianopoulos A, Hynes MJ. Sequence and functional analysis of the positively acting regulatory gene amdR from Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;10(6):3194–3203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arceci RJ, King AA, Simon MC, Orkin SH, Wilson DB. Mouse GATA-4: a retinoic acid-inducible GATA-binding transcription factor expressed in endodermally derived tissues and heart. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;13(4):2235–2246. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arst HN, Jr, Sheerins A. Translational initiation competence, 'leaky scanning' and translational reinitiation in areA mRNA of Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 1996 Mar;19(5):1019–1024. [PubMed]
  • Axelrod JD, Majors J, Brandriss MC. Proline-independent binding of PUT3 transcriptional activator protein detected by footprinting in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Jan;11(1):564–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ballario P, Vittorioso P, Magrelli A, Talora C, Cabibbo A, Macino G. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein. EMBO J. 1996 Apr 1;15(7):1650–1657. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blinder D, Coschigano PW, Magasanik B. Interaction of the GATA factor Gln3p with the nitrogen regulator Ure2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1996 Aug;178(15):4734–4736. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burger G, Strauss J, Scazzocchio C, Lang BF. nirA, the pathway-specific regulatory gene of nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans, encodes a putative GAL4-type zinc finger protein and contains four introns in highly conserved regions. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Nov;11(11):5746–5755. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burger G, Tilburn J, Scazzocchio C. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the pathway-specific regulatory gene nirA, which controls nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Feb;11(2):795–802. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Campbell WH, Kinghorn KR. Functional domains of assimilatory nitrate reductases and nitrite reductases. Trends Biochem Sci. 1990 Aug;15(8):315–319. [PubMed]
  • Wang LW, Marzluf GA. Nitrogen regulation of uricase synthesis in Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Nov;176(3):385–392. [PubMed]
  • Chang WT, Newell PC, Gross JD. Identification of the cell fate gene stalky in Dictyostelium. Cell. 1996 Nov 1;87(3):471–481. [PubMed]
  • Chiang TY, Marzluf GA. DNA recognition by the NIT2 nitrogen regulatory protein: importance of the number, spacing, and orientation of GATA core elements and their flanking sequences upon NIT2 binding. Biochemistry. 1994 Jan 18;33(2):576–582. [PubMed]
  • Chiang TY, Marzluf GA. Binding affinity and functional significance of NIT2 and NIT4 binding sites in the promoter of the highly regulated nit-3 gene, which encodes nitrate reductase in Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1995 Nov;177(21):6093–6099. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chiang TY, Rai R, Cooper TG, Marzluf GA. DNA binding site specificity of the Neurospora global nitrogen regulatory protein NIT2: analysis with mutated binding sites. Mol Gen Genet. 1994 Nov 15;245(4):512–516. [PubMed]
  • Coffman JA, Rai R, Cunningham T, Svetlov V, Cooper TG. Gat1p, a GATA family protein whose production is sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression, participates in transcriptional activation of nitrogen-catabolic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 Mar;16(3):847–858. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cohen BL. The neutral and alkaline proteases of Aspergillus nidulans. J Gen Microbiol. 1973 Aug;77(2):521–528. [PubMed]
  • Coschigano PW, Magasanik B. The URE2 gene product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays an important role in the cellular response to the nitrogen source and has homology to glutathione s-transferases. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Feb;11(2):822–832. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cove DJ. Genetic studies of nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 1979 Aug;54(3):291–327. [PubMed]
  • Crawford NM, Arst HN., Jr The molecular genetics of nitrate assimilation in fungi and plants. Annu Rev Genet. 1993;27:115–146. [PubMed]
  • Cress WD, Triezenberg SJ. Critical structural elements of the VP16 transcriptional activation domain. Science. 1991 Jan 4;251(4989):87–90. [PubMed]
  • Crossley M, Merika M, Orkin SH. Self-association of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 mediated by its zinc finger domains. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2448–2456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cunningham TS, Cooper TG. Expression of the DAL80 gene, whose product is homologous to the GATA factors and is a negative regulator of multiple nitrogen catabolic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Dec;11(12):6205–6215. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cunningham TS, Cooper TG. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DAL80 repressor protein binds to multiple copies of GATAA-containing sequences (URSGATA). J Bacteriol. 1993 Sep;175(18):5851–5861. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cunningham TS, Dorrington RA, Cooper TG. The UGA4 UASNTR site required for GLN3-dependent transcriptional activation also mediates DAL80-responsive regulation and DAL80 protein binding in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1994 Aug;176(15):4718–4725. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Daniel-Vedele F, Caboche M. A tobacco cDNA clone encoding a GATA-1 zinc finger protein homologous to regulators of nitrogen metabolism in fungi. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 Sep;240(3):365–373. [PubMed]
  • Davis MA, Hynes MJ. Complementation of areA- regulatory gene mutations of Aspergillus nidulans by the heterologous regulatory gene nit-2 of Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jun;84(11):3753–3757. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Davis MA, Small AJ, Kourambas S, Hynes MJ. The tamA gene of Aspergillus nidulans contains a putative zinc cluster motif which is not required for gene function. J Bacteriol. 1996 Jun;178(11):3406–3409. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • des Etages SA, Falvey DA, Reece RJ, Brandriss MC. Functional analysis of the PUT3 transcriptional activator of the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 1996 Apr;142(4):1069–1082. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Wit PJ. Cf9 and Avr9, two major players in the gene-for-gene game. Trends Microbiol. 1995 Jul;3(7):251–252. [PubMed]
  • Diallinas G, Scazzocchio C. A gene coding for the uric acid-xanthine permease of Aspergillus nidulans: inactivational cloning, characterization, and sequence of a cis-acting mutation. Genetics. 1989 Jun;122(2):341–350. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dorrington RA, Cooper TG. The DAL82 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae binds to the DAL upstream induction sequence (UIS). Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Aug 11;21(16):3777–3784. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drucker H. Regulation of exocellular proteases in Neurospora crassa: role of Neurospora proteases in induction. J Bacteriol. 1973 Nov;116(2):593–599. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Exley GE, Colandene JD, Garrett RH. Molecular cloning, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of nit-6, the structural gene for nitrite reductase in Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1993 Apr;175(8):2379–2392. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Facklam TJ, Marzluf GA. Nitrogen regulation of amino acid catabolism in Neurospora crassa. Biochem Genet. 1978 Apr;16(3-4):343–354. [PubMed]
  • Feng B, Marzluf GA. The regulatory protein NIT4 that mediates nitrate induction in Neurospora crassa contains a complex tripartite activation domain with a novel leucine-rich, acidic motif. Curr Genet. 1996 May;29(6):537–548. [PubMed]
  • Feng B, Xiao X, Marzluf GA. Recognition of specific nucleotide bases and cooperative DNA binding by the trans-acting nitrogen regulatory protein NIT2 of Neurospora crassa. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Aug 25;21(17):3989–3996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Feng B, Evans S, Marzluf GA. Sequence-specific DNA binding by NIT4, the pathway-specific regulatory protein that mediates nitrate induction in Neurospora. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Mar;15(5):935–942. [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Characterization of nit-2, the major nitrogen regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 May;7(5):1691–1696. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Molecular cloning and analysis of the regulation of nit-3, the structural gene for nitrate reductase in Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Dec;84(23):8243–8247. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Metabolic control and autogenous regulation of nit-3, the nitrate reductase structural gene of Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1988 Feb;170(2):657–661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. nit-2, the major positive-acting nitrogen regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa, encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jul;87(14):5331–5335. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Site-directed mutagenesis of the 'zinc finger' DNA-binding domain of the nitrogen-regulatory protein NIT2 of Neurospora. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Nov;4(11):1847–1852. [PubMed]
  • Fu YH, Paietta JV, Mannix DG, Marzluf GA. cys-3, the positive-acting sulfur regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa, encodes a protein with a putative leucine zipper DNA-binding element. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Mar;9(3):1120–1127. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • González C, Brito N, Marzluf GA. Functional analysis by site-directed mutagenesis of individual amino acid residues in the flavin domain of Neurospora crassa nitrate reductase. Mol Gen Genet. 1995 Dec 10;249(4):456–464. [PubMed]
  • Haas H, Bauer B, Redl B, Stöffler G, Marzluf GA. Molecular cloning and analysis of nre, the major nitrogen regulatory gene of Penicillium chrysogenum. Curr Genet. 1995 Jan;27(2):150–158. [PubMed]
  • Hanson MA, Marzluf GA. Control of the synthesis of a single enzyme by multiple regulatory circuits in Neurospora crassa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Apr;72(4):1240–1244. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hawker KL, Montague P, Marzluf GA, Kinghorn JR. Heterologous expression and regulation of the Neurospora crassa nit-4 pathway-specific regulatory gene for nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Gene. 1991 Apr;100:237–240. [PubMed]
  • Hope IA, Struhl K. Functional dissection of a eukaryotic transcriptional activator protein, GCN4 of yeast. Cell. 1986 Sep 12;46(6):885–894. [PubMed]
  • Hull EP, Green PM, Arst HN, Jr, Scazzocchio C. Cloning and physical characterization of the L-proline catabolism gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Microbiol. 1989 Apr;3(4):553–559. [PubMed]
  • Johnstone IL, McCabe PC, Greaves P, Gurr SJ, Cole GE, Brow MA, Unkles SE, Clutterbuck AJ, Kinghorn JR, Innis MA. Isolation and characterisation of the crnA-niiA-niaD gene cluster for nitrate assimilation in Aspergillus nidulans. Gene. 1990 Jun 15;90(2):181–192. [PubMed]
  • Katz ME, Hynes MJ. Isolation and analysis of the acetate regulatory gene, facB, from Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;9(12):5696–5701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawana M, Lee ME, Quertermous EE, Quertermous T. Cooperative interaction of GATA-2 and AP1 regulates transcription of the endothelin-1 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Aug;15(8):4225–4231. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kudla B, Caddick MX, Langdon T, Martinez-Rossi NM, Bennett CF, Sibley S, Davies RW, Arst HN., Jr The regulatory gene areA mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations affecting specificity of gene activation alter a loop residue of a putative zinc finger. EMBO J. 1990 May;9(5):1355–1364. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Langdon T, Sheerins A, Ravagnani A, Gielkens M, Caddick MX, Arst HN., Jr Mutational analysis reveals dispensability of the N-terminal region of the Aspergillus transcription factor mediating nitrogen metabolite repression. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Sep;17(5):877–888. [PubMed]
  • Lau G, Hamer JE. Regulatory Genes Controlling MPG1 Expression and Pathogenicity in the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Plant Cell. 1996 May;8(5):771–781. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee H, Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Molecular cloning and characterization of alc the gene encoding allantoicase of Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Jun;222(1):140–144. [PubMed]
  • Lee H, Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Nucleotide sequence and DNA recognition elements of alc, the structural gene which encodes allantoicase, a purine catabolic enzyme of Neurospora crassa. Biochemistry. 1990 Sep 18;29(37):8779–8787. [PubMed]
  • Lindberg RA, Drucker H. Characterization and comparison of a Neurospora crassa RNase purified from cultures undergoing each of three different states of derepression. J Bacteriol. 1984 Feb;157(2):375–379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lints R, Davis MA, Hynes MJ. The positively acting amdA gene of Aspergillus nidulans encodes a protein with two C2H2 zinc-finger motifs. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Mar;15(5):965–975. [PubMed]
  • Ma J, Ptashne M. Deletion analysis of GAL4 defines two transcriptional activating segments. Cell. 1987 Mar 13;48(5):847–853. [PubMed]
  • Marczak JE, Brandriss MC. Analysis of constitutive and noninducible mutations of the PUT3 transcriptional activator. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 May;11(5):2609–2619. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marzluf GA. Regulation of nitrogen metabolism and gene expression in fungi. Microbiol Rev. 1981 Sep;45(3):437–461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marzluf GA. Regulation of sulfur and nitrogen metabolism in filamentous fungi. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1993;47:31–55. [PubMed]
  • Masison DC, Wickner RB. Prion-inducing domain of yeast Ure2p and protease resistance of Ure2p in prion-containing cells. Science. 1995 Oct 6;270(5233):93–95. [PubMed]
  • Merika M, Orkin SH. DNA-binding specificity of GATA family transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Jul;13(7):3999–4010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Merika M, Orkin SH. Functional synergy and physical interactions of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 with the Krüppel family proteins Sp1 and EKLF. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2437–2447. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Minehart PL, Magasanik B. Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Dec;11(12):6216–6228. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nahm BH, Marzluf GA. Induction and de novo synthesis of uricase, a nitrogen-regulated enzyme in Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1987 May;169(5):1943–1948. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Okamoto PM, Garrett RH, Marzluf GA. Molecular characterization of conventional and new repeat-induced mutants of nit-3, the structural gene that encodes nitrate reductase in Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 Apr;238(1-2):81–90. [PubMed]
  • Okamoto PM, Marzluf GA. Nitrate reductase of Neurospora crassa: the functional role of individual amino acids in the heme domain as examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Mol Gen Genet. 1993 Aug;240(2):221–230. [PubMed]
  • Omichinski JG, Clore GM, Schaad O, Felsenfeld G, Trainor C, Appella E, Stahl SJ, Gronenborn AM. NMR structure of a specific DNA complex of Zn-containing DNA binding domain of GATA-1. Science. 1993 Jul 23;261(5120):438–446. [PubMed]
  • Orkin SH. GATA-binding transcription factors in hematopoietic cells. Blood. 1992 Aug 1;80(3):575–581. [PubMed]
  • Platt A, Langdon T, Arst HN, Jr, Kirk D, Tollervey D, Sanchez JM, Caddick MX. Nitrogen metabolite signalling involves the C-terminus and the GATA domain of the Aspergillus transcription factor AREA and the 3' untranslated region of its mRNA. EMBO J. 1996 Jun 3;15(11):2791–2801. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Platt A, Ravagnani A, Arst H, Jr, Kirk D, Langdon T, Caddick MX. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal region of AREA, the transcription factor mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mol Gen Genet. 1996 Jan 15;250(1):106–114. [PubMed]
  • Polley SD, Caddick MX. Molecular characterisation of meaB, a novel gene affecting nitrogen metabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans. FEBS Lett. 1996 Jun 17;388(2-3):200–205. [PubMed]
  • Premakumar R, Sorger GJ, Gooden D. Nitrogen metabolite repression of nitrate reductase in Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1979 Mar;137(3):1119–1126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Premakumar R, Sorger GJ, Gooden D. Physiological characterization of a Neurospora crassa mutant with impaired regulation of nitrate reductase. J Bacteriol. 1980 Nov;144(2):542–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Punt PJ, Strauss J, Smit R, Kinghorn JR, van den Hondel CA, Scazzocchio C. The intergenic region between the divergently transcribed niiA and niaD genes of Aspergillus nidulans contains multiple NirA binding sites which act bidirectionally. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Oct;15(10):5688–5699. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Qui HF, Dubois E, Messenguy F. Dissection of the bifunctional ARGRII protein involved in the regulation of arginine anabolic and catabolic pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Apr;11(4):2169–2179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reinert WR, Marzluf GA. Genetic and metabolic control of the purine catabolic enzymes of Neurospora crasse. Mol Gen Genet. 1975 Aug 5;139(1):39–55. [PubMed]
  • Siddiqui AH, Brandriss MC. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT3 activator protein associates with proline-specific upstream activation sequences. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Nov;9(11):4706–4712. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sikora L, Marzluf GA. Regulation of L-amino acid oxidase and of D-amino acid oxidase in Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;186(1):33–39. [PubMed]
  • Sikora LA, Marzluf GA. Regulation of L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase by L-phenylalanine and nitrogen in Neurospora crassa. J Bacteriol. 1982 Jun;150(3):1287–1291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sophianopoulou V, Scazzocchio C. The proline transport protein of Aspergillus nidulans is very similar to amino acid transporters of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol. 1989 Jun;3(6):705–714. [PubMed]
  • Sorger GJ, Brown D, Farzannejad M, Guerra A, Jonathan M, Knight S, Sharda R. Isolation of a gene that down-regulates nitrate assimilation and influences another regulatory gene in the same system. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Sep;9(9):4113–4117. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sorger GJ, Premakumar R, Gooden D. Demonstration in vitro of two intracellular inactivators of nitrate reductase from Neurospora. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1978 Apr 19;540(1):33–47. [PubMed]
  • Spieth J, Shim YH, Lea K, Conrad R, Blumenthal T. elt-1, an embryonically expressed Caenorhabditis elegans gene homologous to the GATA transcription factor family. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Sep;11(9):4651–4659. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stanbrough M, Magasanik B. Two transcription factors, Gln3p and Nil1p, use the same GATAAG sites to activate the expression of GAP1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1996 Apr;178(8):2465–2468. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stanbrough M, Rowen DW, Magasanik B. Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Oct 10;92(21):9450–9454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stankovich M, Platt A, Caddick MX, Langdon T, Shaffer PM, Arst HN., Jr C-terminal truncation of the transcriptional activator encoded by areA in Aspergillus nidulans results in both loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Jan;7(1):81–87. [PubMed]
  • Stewart V, Vollmer SJ. Molecular cloning of nit-2, a regulatory gene required for nitrogen metabolite repression in Neurospora crassa. Gene. 1986;46(2-3):291–295. [PubMed]
  • Suárez T, de Queiroz MV, Oestreicher N, Scazzocchio C. The sequence and binding specificity of UaY, the specific regulator of the purine utilization pathway in Aspergillus nidulans, suggest an evolutionary relationship with the PPR1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 1995 Apr 3;14(7):1453–1467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suárez T, Oestreicher N, Kelly J, Ong G, Sankarsingh T, Scazzocchio C. The uaY positive control gene of Aspergillus nidulans: fine structure, isolation of constitutive mutants and reversion patterns. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 Dec;230(3):359–368. [PubMed]
  • Suárez T, Oestreicher N, Peñalva MA, Scazzocchio C. Molecular cloning of the uaY regulatory gene of Aspergillus nidulans reveals a favoured region for DNA insertions. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 Dec;230(3):369–375. [PubMed]
  • Talbot NJ, Ebbole DJ, Hamer JE. Identification and characterization of MPG1, a gene involved in pathogenicity from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Plant Cell. 1993 Nov;5(11):1575–1590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tilburn J, Sarkar S, Widdick DA, Espeso EA, Orejas M, Mungroo J, Peñalva MA, Arst HN., Jr The Aspergillus PacC zinc finger transcription factor mediates regulation of both acid- and alkaline-expressed genes by ambient pH. EMBO J. 1995 Feb 15;14(4):779–790. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tomsett AB, Dunn-Coleman NS, Garrett RH. The regulation of nitrate assimilation in Neurospora crassa: the isolation and genetic analysis of nmr-1 mutants. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;182(2):229–233. [PubMed]
  • Tomsett AB, Garrett RH. Biochemical analysis of mutants defective in nitrate assimilation in Neurospora crassa: evidence for autogenous control by nitrate reductase. Mol Gen Genet. 1981;184(2):183–190. [PubMed]
  • Unkles SE, Campbell EI, Carrez D, Grieve C, Contreras R, Fiers W, Van den Hondel CA, Kinghorn JR. Transformation of Aspergillus niger with the homologous nitrate reductase gene. Gene. 1989 May 15;78(1):157–166. [PubMed]
  • Unkles SE, Hawker KL, Grieve C, Campbell EI, Montague P, Kinghorn JR. crnA encodes a nitrate transporter in Aspergillus nidulans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):204–208. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Heeswijck R, Hynes MJ. The amdR product and a CCAAT-binding factor bind to adjacent, possibly overlapping DNA sequences in the promoter region of the Aspergillus nidulans amdS gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 May 25;19(10):2655–2660. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Vuuren HJ, Daugherty JR, Rai R, Cooper TG. Upstream induction sequence, the cis-acting element required for response to the allantoin pathway inducer and enhancement of operation of the nitrogen-regulated upstream activation sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(22):7186–7195. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Voisard C, Wang J, McEvoy JL, Xu P, Leong SA. urbs1, a gene regulating siderophore biosynthesis in Ustilago maydis, encodes a protein similar to the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Nov;13(11):7091–7100. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Whitelaw E, Tsai SF, Hogben P, Orkin SH. Regulated expression of globin chains and the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 during erythropoiesis in the developing mouse. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Dec;10(12):6596–6606. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xiao X, Fu YH, Marzluf GA. The negative-acting NMR regulatory protein of Neurospora crassa binds to and inhibits the DNA-binding activity of the positive-acting nitrogen regulatory protein NIT2. Biochemistry. 1995 Jul 11;34(27):8861–8868. [PubMed]
  • Xiao XD, Marzluf GA. Amino-acid substitutions in the zinc finger of NIT2, the nitrogen regulatory protein of Neurospora crassa, alter promoter element recognition. Curr Genet. 1993 Sep;24(3):212–218. [PubMed]
  • Yang HY, Evans T. Distinct roles for the two cGATA-1 finger domains. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Oct;12(10):4562–4570. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young JL, Jarai G, Fu YH, Marzluf GA. Nucleotide sequence and analysis of NMR, a negative-acting regulatory gene in the nitrogen circuit of Neurospora crassa. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Jun;222(1):120–128. [PubMed]
  • Yuan GF, Fu YH, Marzluf GA. nit-4, a pathway-specific regulatory gene of Neurospora crassa, encodes a protein with a putative binuclear zinc DNA-binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1991 Nov;11(11):5735–5745. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...