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Mol Cell Biol. Jul 1997; 17(7): 4051–4058.
PMCID: PMC232258

CD28 mediates transcriptional upregulation of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter through a composite element containing the CD28RE and NF-IL-2B AP-1 sites.

Abstract

Mutagenesis studies have demonstrated the requirement for the CD28-responsive element (CD28RE) within the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter for transcriptional upregulation by CD28. Here, we demonstrate that CD28 responsiveness is conferred by a composite element containing both the CD28RE and the NF-IL-2B AP-1 sites (RE/AP). Mutations at either site within the RE/AP composite element abolish activity. The RE/AP composite element is a site for signal integration within the IL-2 promoter, since its activation is dependent on at least two separate signalling pathways being activated, through the T-cell receptor, CD28, and/or phorbol myristate acetate. Activation is maximal when all three signals occur simultaneously. By using a panel of CD28 cytoplasmic domain mutants, it was found that the transcriptional activation of the RE/AP composite element correlates exactly with the pattern of IL-2 secretion induced by these mutants upon stimulation. Similar to the upregulation of IL-2 secretion, the transcriptional upregulation of the RE/AP composite element by CD28 is FK506 insensitive. The pattern of activation of the RE/AP composite element is different from that observed for either an NFAT or consensus AP-1 site, implying that RE/AP represents a unique element. Using gel shift analysis, we demonstrate that stimulation by CD28 induces the association of the NF-kappaB family member c-Rel to the CD28RE within the RE/AP composite element. The transcriptional upregulation of IL-2 by CD28 appears, therefore, to be mediated through the RE/AP composite element, involving the association of c-Rel with the CD28RE.

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Selected References

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