• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of molcellbPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalMCB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Mol Cell Biol. Jul 1997; 17(7): 3850–3857.
PMCID: PMC232237

Ras links growth factor signaling to the cell cycle machinery via regulation of cyclin D1 and the Cdk inhibitor p27KIP1.

Abstract

Activation of growth factor receptors by ligand binding initiates a cascade of events leading to cell growth and division. Progression through the cell cycle is controlled by cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks), but the mechanisms that link growth factor signaling to the cell cycle machinery have not been established. We report here that Ras proteins play a key role in integrating mitogenic signals with cell cycle progression through G1. Ras is required for cell cycle progression and activation of both Cdk2 and Cdk4 until approximately 2 h before the G1/S transition, corresponding to the restriction point. Analysis of Cdk-cyclin complexes indicates that Ras signaling is required both for induction of cyclin D1 and for downregulation of the Cdk inhibitor p27KIP1. Constitutive expression of cyclin D1 circumvents the requirement for Ras signaling in cell proliferation, indicating that regulation of cyclin D1 is a critical target of the Ras signaling cascade.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (706K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Albanese C, Johnson J, Watanabe G, Eklund N, Vu D, Arnold A, Pestell RG. Transforming p21ras mutants and c-Ets-2 activate the cyclin D1 promoter through distinguishable regions. J Biol Chem. 1995 Oct 6;270(40):23589–23597. [PubMed]
  • Arber N, Sutter T, Miyake M, Kahn SM, Venkatraj VS, Sobrino A, Warburton D, Holt PR, Weinstein IB. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and the Rb tumor suppressor gene in c-K-ras transformed rat enterocytes. Oncogene. 1996 May 2;12(9):1903–1908. [PubMed]
  • Baldin V, Lukas J, Marcote MJ, Pagano M, Draetta G. Cyclin D1 is a nuclear protein required for cell cycle progression in G1. Genes Dev. 1993 May;7(5):812–821. [PubMed]
  • Cai H, Erhardt P, Troppmair J, Diaz-Meco MT, Sithanandam G, Rapp UR, Moscat J, Cooper GM. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine couples Ras to activation of Raf protein kinase during mitogenic signal transduction. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Dec;13(12):7645–7651. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cai H, Szeberényi J, Cooper GM. Effect of a dominant inhibitory Ha-ras mutation on mitogenic signal transduction in NIH 3T3 cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Oct;10(10):5314–5323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dobrowolski S, Harter M, Stacey DW. Cellular ras activity is required for passage through multiple points of the G0/G1 phase in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Aug;14(8):5441–5449. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • el-Deiry WS, Tokino T, Velculescu VE, Levy DB, Parsons R, Trent JM, Lin D, Mercer WE, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B. WAF1, a potential mediator of p53 tumor suppression. Cell. 1993 Nov 19;75(4):817–825. [PubMed]
  • Fang F, Newport JW. Evidence that the G1-S and G2-M transitions are controlled by different cdc2 proteins in higher eukaryotes. Cell. 1991 Aug 23;66(4):731–742. [PubMed]
  • Feig LA, Cooper GM. Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Aug;8(8):3235–3243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Furth ME, Davis LJ, Fleurdelys B, Scolnick EM. Monoclonal antibodies to the p21 products of the transforming gene of Harvey murine sarcoma virus and of the cellular ras gene family. J Virol. 1982 Jul;43(1):294–304. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gu Y, Turck CW, Morgan DO. Inhibition of CDK2 activity in vivo by an associated 20K regulatory subunit. Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):707–710. [PubMed]
  • Hannon GJ, Beach D. p15INK4B is a potential effector of TGF-beta-induced cell cycle arrest. Nature. 1994 Sep 15;371(6494):257–261. [PubMed]
  • Harper JW, Adami GR, Wei N, Keyomarsi K, Elledge SJ. The p21 Cdk-interacting protein Cip1 is a potent inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Cell. 1993 Nov 19;75(4):805–816. [PubMed]
  • Hengst L, Reed SI. Translational control of p27Kip1 accumulation during the cell cycle. Science. 1996 Mar 29;271(5257):1861–1864. [PubMed]
  • Herrera RE, Sah VP, Williams BO, Mäkelä TP, Weinberg RA, Jacks T. Altered cell cycle kinetics, gene expression, and G1 restriction point regulation in Rb-deficient fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 1996 May;16(5):2402–2407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hirai H, Roussel MF, Kato JY, Ashmun RA, Sherr CJ. Novel INK4 proteins, p19 and p18, are specific inhibitors of the cyclin D-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2672–2681. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kato JY, Matsuoka M, Polyak K, Massagué J, Sherr CJ. Cyclic AMP-induced G1 phase arrest mediated by an inhibitor (p27Kip1) of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 activation. Cell. 1994 Nov 4;79(3):487–496. [PubMed]
  • Kolch W, Heidecker G, Lloyd P, Rapp UR. Raf-1 protein kinase is required for growth of induced NIH/3T3 cells. Nature. 1991 Jan 31;349(6308):426–428. [PubMed]
  • Lavoie JN, L'Allemain G, Brunet A, Müller R, Pouysségur J. Cyclin D1 expression is regulated positively by the p42/p44MAPK and negatively by the p38/HOGMAPK pathway. J Biol Chem. 1996 Aug 23;271(34):20608–20616. [PubMed]
  • Lee MH, Reynisdóttir I, Massagué J. Cloning of p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor with unique domain structure and tissue distribution. Genes Dev. 1995 Mar 15;9(6):639–649. [PubMed]
  • Liu JJ, Chao JR, Jiang MC, Ng SY, Yen JJ, Yang-Yen HF. Ras transformation results in an elevated level of cyclin D1 and acceleration of G1 progression in NIH 3T3 cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Jul;15(7):3654–3663. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lukas J, Bartkova J, Rohde M, Strauss M, Bartek J. Cyclin D1 is dispensable for G1 control in retinoblastoma gene-deficient cells independently of cdk4 activity. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2600–2611. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marshall CJ. Specificity of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling: transient versus sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):179–185. [PubMed]
  • Matsuoka S, Edwards MC, Bai C, Parker S, Zhang P, Baldini A, Harper JW, Elledge SJ. p57KIP2, a structurally distinct member of the p21CIP1 Cdk inhibitor family, is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Genes Dev. 1995 Mar 15;9(6):650–662. [PubMed]
  • Matsushime H, Ewen ME, Strom DK, Kato JY, Hanks SK, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ. Identification and properties of an atypical catalytic subunit (p34PSK-J3/cdk4) for mammalian D type G1 cyclins. Cell. 1992 Oct 16;71(2):323–334. [PubMed]
  • Matsushime H, Quelle DE, Shurtleff SA, Shibuya M, Sherr CJ, Kato JY. D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Mar;14(3):2066–2076. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsushime H, Roussel MF, Ashmun RA, Sherr CJ. Colony-stimulating factor 1 regulates novel cyclins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell. 1991 May 17;65(4):701–713. [PubMed]
  • Meyerson M, Harlow E. Identification of G1 kinase activity for cdk6, a novel cyclin D partner. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Mar;14(3):2077–2086. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mulcahy LS, Smith MR, Stacey DW. Requirement for ras proto-oncogene function during serum-stimulated growth of NIH 3T3 cells. Nature. 1985 Jan 17;313(5999):241–243. [PubMed]
  • Nourse J, Firpo E, Flanagan WM, Coats S, Polyak K, Lee MH, Massague J, Crabtree GR, Roberts JM. Interleukin-2-mediated elimination of the p27Kip1 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor prevented by rapamycin. Nature. 1994 Dec 8;372(6506):570–573. [PubMed]
  • Ohtsubo M, Theodoras AM, Schumacher J, Roberts JM, Pagano M. Human cyclin E, a nuclear protein essential for the G1-to-S phase transition. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 May;15(5):2612–2624. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pagano M, Tam SW, Theodoras AM, Beer-Romero P, Del Sal G, Chau V, Yew PR, Draetta GF, Rolfe M. Role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in regulating abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Science. 1995 Aug 4;269(5224):682–685. [PubMed]
  • Pardee AB. G1 events and regulation of cell proliferation. Science. 1989 Nov 3;246(4930):603–608. [PubMed]
  • Polyak K, Kato JY, Solomon MJ, Sherr CJ, Massague J, Roberts JM, Koff A. p27Kip1, a cyclin-Cdk inhibitor, links transforming growth factor-beta and contact inhibition to cell cycle arrest. Genes Dev. 1994 Jan;8(1):9–22. [PubMed]
  • Polyak K, Lee MH, Erdjument-Bromage H, Koff A, Roberts JM, Tempst P, Massagué J. Cloning of p27Kip1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and a potential mediator of extracellular antimitogenic signals. Cell. 1994 Jul 15;78(1):59–66. [PubMed]
  • Quelle DE, Ashmun RA, Shurtleff SA, Kato JY, Bar-Sagi D, Roussel MF, Sherr CJ. Overexpression of mouse D-type cyclins accelerates G1 phase in rodent fibroblasts. Genes Dev. 1993 Aug;7(8):1559–1571. [PubMed]
  • Resnitzky D, Hengst L, Reed SI. Cyclin A-associated kinase activity is rate limiting for entrance into S phase and is negatively regulated in G1 by p27Kip1. Mol Cell Biol. 1995 Aug;15(8):4347–4352. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Reynisdóttir I, Polyak K, Iavarone A, Massagué J. Kip/Cip and Ink4 Cdk inhibitors cooperate to induce cell cycle arrest in response to TGF-beta. Genes Dev. 1995 Aug 1;9(15):1831–1845. [PubMed]
  • Sebastian B, Kakizuka A, Hunter T. Cdc25M2 activation of cyclin-dependent kinases by dephosphorylation of threonine-14 and tyrosine-15. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15;90(8):3521–3524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sherr CJ. G1 phase progression: cycling on cue. Cell. 1994 Nov 18;79(4):551–555. [PubMed]
  • Sherr CJ, Roberts JM. Inhibitors of mammalian G1 cyclin-dependent kinases. Genes Dev. 1995 May 15;9(10):1149–1163. [PubMed]
  • Slingerland JM, Hengst L, Pan CH, Alexander D, Stampfer MR, Reed SI. A novel inhibitor of cyclin-Cdk activity detected in transforming growth factor beta-arrested epithelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1994 Jun;14(6):3683–3694. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Steiner P, Philipp A, Lukas J, Godden-Kent D, Pagano M, Mittnacht S, Bartek J, Eilers M. Identification of a Myc-dependent step during the formation of active G1 cyclin-cdk complexes. EMBO J. 1995 Oct 2;14(19):4814–4826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Surmacz E, Reiss K, Sell C, Baserga R. Cyclin D1 messenger RNA is inducible by platelet-derived growth factor in cultured fibroblasts. Cancer Res. 1992 Aug 15;52(16):4522–4525. [PubMed]
  • Temin HM. Stimulation by serum of multiplication of stationary chicken cells. J Cell Physiol. 1971 Oct;78(2):161–170. [PubMed]
  • Terada Y, Tatsuka M, Jinno S, Okayama H. Requirement for tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdk4 in G1 arrest induced by ultraviolet irradiation. Nature. 1995 Jul 27;376(6538):358–362. [PubMed]
  • Toyoshima H, Hunter T. p27, a novel inhibitor of G1 cyclin-Cdk protein kinase activity, is related to p21. Cell. 1994 Jul 15;78(1):67–74. [PubMed]
  • Tsai LH, Lees E, Faha B, Harlow E, Riabowol K. The cdk2 kinase is required for the G1-to-S transition in mammalian cells. Oncogene. 1993 Jun;8(6):1593–1602. [PubMed]
  • van den Heuvel S, Harlow E. Distinct roles for cyclin-dependent kinases in cell cycle control. Science. 1993 Dec 24;262(5142):2050–2054. [PubMed]
  • Winston JT, Coats SR, Wang YZ, Pledger WJ. Regulation of the cell cycle machinery by oncogenic ras. Oncogene. 1996 Jan 4;12(1):127–134. [PubMed]
  • Won KA, Xiong Y, Beach D, Gilman MZ. Growth-regulated expression of D-type cyclin genes in human diploid fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15;89(20):9910–9914. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xiong Y, Hannon GJ, Zhang H, Casso D, Kobayashi R, Beach D. p21 is a universal inhibitor of cyclin kinases. Nature. 1993 Dec 16;366(6456):701–704. [PubMed]

Articles from Molecular and Cellular Biology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...