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Mol Cell Biol. Apr 1996; 16(4): 1659–1667.
PMCID: PMC231152

Interaction of Sp1 with the growth- and cell cycle-regulated transcription factor E2F.

Abstract

Within the region around 150 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which was previously shown to suffice for growth-regulated expression, the murine thymidine kinase gene carries a single binding site for transcription factor Sp1; about 10 bp downstream of this site, there is a binding motif for transcription factor E2F. The latter protein appears to be responsible for growth regulation of the promoter. Mutational inactivation of either the Sp1 or the E2F site almost completely abolishes promoter activity, suggesting that the two transcription factors interact directly in delivering an activation signal to the basic transcription machinery. This was verified by demonstrating with the use of glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins that E2F and Sp1 bind to each other in vitro. For this interaction, the C-terminal part of Sp1 and the N terminus of E2F1, a domain also present in E2F2 and E2F3 but absent in E2F4 and E2F5, were essential. Accordingly, E2F1 to E2F3 but not E2F4 and E2F5 were found to bind sp1 in vitro. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that complexes exist in vivo, and it was estabilished that the distance between the binding sites for the two transcription factors was critical for optimal promoter activity. Finally, in vivo footprinting experiments indicated that both the sp1 and E2F binding sites are occupied throughout the cell cycle. Mutation of either binding motif abolished binding of both transcription factors in vivo, which may indicate cooperative binding of the two proteins to chromatin-organized DNA. Our data are in line with the hypothesis that E2F functions as a growth- and cell cycle regulated tethering factor between Sp1 and the basic transcription machinery.

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Selected References

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