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Mol Cell Biol. Apr 1996; 16(4): 1649–1658.
PMCID: PMC231151

Analysis of muscle creatine kinase gene regulatory elements in skeletal and cardiac muscles of transgenic mice.


Regulatory regions of the mouse muscle creatine kinase (MCK) gene, previously discovered by analysis in cultured muscle cells, were analyzed in transgenic mice. The 206-bp MCK enhancer at nt-1256 was required for high-level expression of MCK-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase fusion genes in skeletal and cardiac muscle; however, unlike its behavior in cell culture, inclusion of the 1-kb region of DNA between the enhancer and the basal promoter produced a 100-fold increase in skeletal muscle activity. Analysis of enhancer control elements also indicated major differences between their properties in transgenic muscles and in cultured muscle cells. Transgenes in which the enhancer right E box or CArG element were mutated exhibited expression levels that were indistinguishable from the wild-type transgene. Mutation of three conserved E boxes in the MCK 1,256-bp 5' region also had no effect on transgene expression in thigh skeletal muscle expression. All these mutations significantly reduced activity in cultured skeletal myocytes. However, the enhancer AT-rich element at nt - 1195 was critical for expression in transgenic skeletal muscle. Mutation of this site reduced skeletal muscle expression to the same level as transgenes lacking the 206-bp enhancer, although mutation of the AT-rich site did not affect cardiac muscle expression. These results demonstrate clear differences between the activity of MCK regulatory regions in cultured muscles cells and in whole adult transgenic muscle. This suggests that there are alternative mechanism of regulating the MCK gene in skeletal and cardiac muscle under different physiological states.

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Selected References

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