• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. Jul 1995; 33(7): 1847–1850.
PMCID: PMC228283

Genetic variability of Bacillus anthracis and related species.

Abstract

We evaluated the abilities of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequences of intergenic spacer regions (ISRs) between two highly conserved genes, 16S-23S rDNA and gyrB-gyrA ISRs, to detect variation in strains of Bacillus anthracis as well as two closely related species, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and B. mycoides ATCC 6462. For each restriction enzyme, (NotI, SfiI, and SmaI), the PFGE banding patterns for three B. anthracis strains (Ames, Vollum, and Sterne) were identical. However, closely related species could be differentiated from B. anthracis and from each other. PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA ISR yielded a 143- to 144-bp fragment, showing identical sequences for B. anthracis strains, one nucleotide deletion between B. cerus and B. anthracis, and 13 nucleotide differences between B. mycoides and B. anthracis. The gyrase ISR sequences (121 bp) in B. anthracis strains were also identical, but those in B. cereus and B. mycoides differed from that in B. anthracis by 1 and 2 nucleotides, respectively, and from each other by only 1 nucleotide. Given the diverse geographic origins of these B. anthracis strains, this species is very homogenous. We conclude that methods such as PFGE and sequences of ISRs may be useful in separating B. anthracis from closely related species, but more sensitive methods are needed for strain identification of B. anthracis.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (263K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Ash C, Collins MD. Comparative analysis of 23S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Bacillus anthracis and emetic Bacillus cereus determined by PCR-direct sequencing. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Jul 1;73(1-2):75–80. [PubMed]
  • Ash C, Farrow JA, Dorsch M, Stackebrandt E, Collins MD. Comparative analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and related species on the basis of reverse transcriptase sequencing of 16S rRNA. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1991 Jul;41(3):343–346. [PubMed]
  • Barry T, Colleran G, Glennon M, Dunican LK, Gannon F. The 16s/23s ribosomal spacer region as a target for DNA probes to identify eubacteria. PCR Methods Appl. 1991 Aug;1(1):51–56. [PubMed]
  • Drobniewski FA. Bacillus cereus and related species. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1993 Oct;6(4):324–338. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frothingham R, Wilson KH. Sequence-based differentiation of strains in the Mycobacterium avium complex. J Bacteriol. 1993 May;175(10):2818–2825. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goering RV. Molecular epidemiology of nosocomial infection: analysis of chromosomal restriction fragment patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1993 Oct;14(10):595–600. [PubMed]
  • Green BD, Battisti L, Koehler TM, Thorne CB, Ivins BE. Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun. 1985 Aug;49(2):291–297. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henderson I, Duggleby CJ, Turnbull PC. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from other Bacillus cereus group bacteria with the PCR. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1994 Jan;44(1):99–105. [PubMed]
  • Kaneko T, Nozaki R, Aizawa K. Deoxyribonucleic acid relatedness between Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. Microbiol Immunol. 1978;22(10):639–641. [PubMed]
  • Makino SI, Iinuma-Okada Y, Maruyama T, Ezaki T, Sasakawa C, Yoshikawa M. Direct detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in animals by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Mar;31(3):547–551. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Margerrison EE, Hopewell R, Fisher LM. Nucleotide sequence of the Staphylococcus aureus gyrB-gyrA locus encoding the DNA gyrase A and B proteins. J Bacteriol. 1992 Mar;174(5):1596–1603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mikesell P, Ivins BE, Ristroph JD, Dreier TM. Evidence for plasmid-mediated toxin production in Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun. 1983 Jan;39(1):371–376. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moriya S, Ogasawara N, Yoshikawa H. Structure and function of the region of the replication origin of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome. III. Nucleotide sequence of some 10,000 base pairs in the origin region. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Apr 11;13(7):2251–2265. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Olsen GJ, Lane DJ, Giovannoni SJ, Pace NR, Stahl DA. Microbial ecology and evolution: a ribosomal RNA approach. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1986;40:337–365. [PubMed]
  • Smith JS, Orciari LA, Yager PA, Seidel HD, Warner CK. Epidemiologic and historical relationships among 87 rabies virus isolates as determined by limited sequence analysis. J Infect Dis. 1992 Aug;166(2):296–307. [PubMed]
  • Suzuki Y, Nagata A, Ono Y, Yamada T. Complete nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of Mycobacterium bovis BCG. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2886–2889. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Swanberg SL, Wang JC. Cloning and sequencing of the Escherichia coli gyrA gene coding for the A subunit of DNA gyrase. J Mol Biol. 1987 Oct 20;197(4):729–736. [PubMed]
  • Wilson KH, Blitchington RB, Greene RC. Amplification of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA with polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Sep;28(9):1942–1946. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...