Logo of jcmPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJCM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Jul; 33(7): 1815–1821.
PMCID: PMC228276

Three distinct genotypes within Candida parapsilosis from clinical sources.


Three genetically distinct groups of Candida parapsilosis were detected among clinical isolates. These were distinguishable on the basis of isoenzyme profiles and DNA sequences of internally transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences flanking the 5.8S RNA gene. In an investigation of 45 strains, including 32 clinical isolates from Texas, C. parapsilosis group I composed the majority of the common clinical isolates. The type strain of C. parapsilosis was a member of this group. The 10 group II isolates were indistinguishable from group I strains when tested with the API 20C kit. The two group III isolates differed from those in groups I and II by being D-xylitol positive by the API 20C kit; however, isolates in all groups assimilated D-xylitol from broth. Isoenzyme profiles excluded the close relationship of any of these groups to Lodderomyces elongisporus, which is a teleomorphic yeast that has a physiological profile similar to that of C. parapsilosis. Although there were insignificant differences in the ITS2 rDNA sequences, comparisons of the ITS1 sequences revealed several differences. A sequence analysis of ITS1 in which missing bases were counted as mismatches showed the following similarities: group I versus group II, 87.7%; group I versus group III, 82.1%; group II versus group III, 84.5%. Also, the activity of secreted proteinase showed differences among the three groups, with many group I isolates having moderate to high activity. The degree of susceptibility to antifungal agents, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine, could not be used to determine an isolate's group.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (694K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bille J, Stockman L, Roberts GD. Detection of yeasts and filamentous fungi in blood cultures during a 10-year period (1972 to 1981). J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Nov;16(5):968–970. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976 May 7;72:248–254. [PubMed]
  • Branchini ML, Pfaller MA, Rhine-Chalberg J, Frempong T, Isenberg HD. Genotypic variation and slime production among blood and catheter isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Feb;32(2):452–456. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Camougrand N, Mila B, Velours G, Lazowska J, Guérin M. Discrimination between different groups of Candida parapsilosis by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis. Curr Genet. 1988 May;13(5):445–449. [PubMed]
  • Carruba G, Pontieri E, De Bernardis F, Martino P, Cassone A. DNA fingerprinting and electrophoretic karyotype of environmental and clinical isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 May;29(5):916–922. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Caugant DA, Sandven P. Epidemiological analysis of Candida albicans strains by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb;31(2):215–220. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chakrabarti A, Nayak N, Talwar P. In vitro proteinase production by Candida species. Mycopathologia. 1991 Jun;114(3):163–168. [PubMed]
  • De Bernardis F, Lorenzini R, Verticchio R, Agatensi L, Cassone A. Isolation, acid proteinase secretion, and experimental pathogenicity of Candida parapsilosis from outpatients with vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Nov;27(11):2598–2603. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • de Bernardis F, Morelli L, Ceddia T, Lorenzini R, Cassone A. Experimental pathogenicity and acid proteinase secretion of vaginal isolates of Candida parapsilosis. J Med Vet Mycol. 1990;28(2):125–137. [PubMed]
  • Doebbeling BN, Lehmann PF, Hollis RJ, Wu LC, Widmer AF, Voss A, Pfaller MA. Comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with isoenzyme profiles as a typing system for Candida tropicalis. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Mar;16(3):377–383. [PubMed]
  • Fromtling RA, Galgiani JN, Pfaller MA, Espinel-Ingroff A, Bartizal KF, Bartlett MS, Body BA, Frey C, Hall G, Roberts GD, et al. Multicenter evaluation of a broth macrodilution antifungal susceptibility test for yeasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Jan;37(1):39–45. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harvey RL, Myers JP. Nosocomial fungemia in a large community teaching hospital. Arch Intern Med. 1987 Dec;147(12):2117–2120. [PubMed]
  • Hunter PR, Fraser CA. Application of the theory of adaptive polymorphism to the ecology and epidemiology of pathogenic yeasts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Jul;56(7):2219–2222. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kemker BJ, Lehmann PF, Lee JW, Walsh TJ. Distinction of deep versus superficial clinical and nonclinical isolates of Trichosporon beigelii by isoenzymes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rDNA generated by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Aug;29(8):1677–1683. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Komshian SV, Uwaydah AK, Sobel JD, Crane LR. Fungemia caused by Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata in the hospitalized patient: frequency, characteristics, and evaluation of factors influencing outcome. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 May-Jun;11(3):379–390. [PubMed]
  • Lehmann PF, Hsiao CB, Salkin IF. Protein and enzyme electrophoresis profiles of selected Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Mar;27(3):400–404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lehmann PF, Kemker BJ, Hsiao CB, Dev S. Isoenzyme biotypes of Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 1989 Nov;27(11):2514–2521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lehmann PF, Lin D, Lasker BA. Genotypic identification and characterization of species and strains within the genus Candida by using random amplified polymorphic DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Dec;30(12):3249–3254. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lott TJ, Kuykendall RJ, Reiss E. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 5.8S rDNA and adjacent ITS2 region of Candida albicans and related species. Yeast. 1993 Nov;9(11):1199–1206. [PubMed]
  • Lott TJ, Kuykendall RJ, Welbel SF, Pramanik A, Lasker BA. Genomic heterogeneity in the yeast Candida parapsilosis. Curr Genet. 1993 May-Jun;23(5-6):463–467. [PubMed]
  • McCray E, Rampell N, Solomon SL, Bond WW, Martone WJ, O'Day D. Outbreak of Candida parapsilosis endophthalmitis after cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. J Clin Microbiol. 1986 Oct;24(4):625–628. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mercure S, Rougeau N, Montplaisir S, Lemay G. Complete nucleotide sequence of Candida albicans 5.8S rRNA coding gene and flanking internal transcribed spacers. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Sep 25;21(19):4640–4640. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Merz WG, Khazan U, Jabra-Rizk MA, Wu LC, Osterhout GJ, Lehmann PF. Strain delineation and epidemiology of Candida (Clavispora) lusitaniae. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Feb;30(2):449–454. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Montrocher R, Claisse ML. Biochemical studies in the yeast genus Candida. Cell Mol Biol. 1984;30(3):291–301. [PubMed]
  • Rüchel R, Tegeler R, Trost M. A comparison of secretory proteinases from different strains of Candida albicans. Sabouraudia. 1982 Sep;20(3):233–244. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scherer S, Stevens DA. Application of DNA typing methods to epidemiology and taxonomy of Candida species. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Apr;25(4):675–679. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Srurgess EA, Wild DG. Comparative electrophoretic studies of proteins from species of Candida. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 1973;18(3):195–206. [PubMed]
  • Su CS, Meyer SA. Restriction endonuclease analysis of mitochondrial DNA from Candida parapsilosis and other Candida species. Yeast. 1989 Apr;5(Spec No):S355–S360. [PubMed]
  • Tibayrenc M, Neubauer K, Barnabé C, Guerrini F, Skarecky D, Ayala FJ. Genetic characterization of six parasitic protozoa: parity between random-primer DNA typing and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 15;90(4):1335–1339. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tindall KR, Stankowski LF., Jr Molecular analysis of spontaneous mutations at the gpt locus in Chinese hamster ovary (AS52) cells. Mutat Res. 1989 Mar-May;220(2-3):241–253. [PubMed]
  • van der Walt JP. Lodderomyces, a new genus of the Saccharomycetaceae. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 1966;32(1):1–5. [PubMed]
  • Wang G, Whittam TS, Berg CM, Berg DE. RAPD (arbitrary primer) PCR is more sensitive than multilocus enzyme electrophoresis for distinguishing related bacterial strains. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Dec 25;21(25):5930–5933. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weems JJ., Jr Candida parapsilosis: epidemiology, pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Clin Infect Dis. 1992 Mar;14(3):756–766. [PubMed]
  • Weems JJ, Jr, Chamberland ME, Ward J, Willy M, Padhye AA, Solomon SL. Candida parapsilosis fungemia associated with parenteral nutrition and contaminated blood pressure transducers. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Jun;25(6):1029–1032. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weinstein MP, Reller LB, Murphy JR, Lichtenstein KA. The clinical significance of positive blood cultures: a comprehensive analysis of 500 episodes of bacteremia and fungemia in adults. I. Laboratory and epidemiologic observations. Rev Infect Dis. 1983 Jan-Feb;5(1):35–53. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...