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J Bacteriol. Aug 1983; 155(2): 531–540.
PMCID: PMC217720

Amplifiable resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and other antibiotics in Escherichia coli: involvement of a non-plasmid-determined efflux of tetracycline.


Increasing levels of resistance to tetracycline and to a number of other unrelated antibiotics, including chloramphenicol, beta-lactams, puromycin, and nalidixic acid, occurred in Escherichia coli after 50 to 200 generations of growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tetracycline or chloramphenicol. In the absence of selective pressure, resistances fell to low levels within 100 generations of growth. This amplification of resistance was observed in laboratory and naturally occurring E. coli strains as well as in polA and recA strains. With the exception of previously identified cmlA and cmlB mutations, tetracycline or chloramphenicol resistances were not P1 transducible. Coincident with the emergence of resistance was the appearance of a previously cryptic energy-dependent efflux system for tetracycline. The expression of resistance phenotypes and the tetracycline efflux system were temperature sensitive at 42 degrees C.

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Selected References

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