• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of prosciprotein sciencecshl presssubscriptionsetoc alertsthe protein societyjournal home
Protein Sci. Jan 1999; 8(1): 13–24.
PMCID: PMC2144112

KM+, a mannose-binding lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia: amino acid sequence, predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition, and analysis of the beta-prism fold.


The complete amino acid sequence of the lectin KM+ from Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit), which contains 149 residues/mol, is reported and compared to those of other members of the Moraceae family, particularly that of jacalin, also from jackfruit, with which it shares 52% sequence identity. KM+ presents an acetyl-blocked N-terminus and is not posttranslationally modified by proteolytic cleavage as is the case for jacalin. Rather, it possesses a short, glycine-rich linker that unites the regions homologous to the alpha- and beta-chains of jacalin. The results of homology modeling implicate the linker sequence in sterically impeding rotation of the side chain of Asp141 within the binding site pocket. As a consequence, the aspartic acid is locked into a conformation adequate only for the recognition of equatorial hydroxyl groups on the C4 epimeric center (alpha-D-mannose, alpha-D-glucose, and their derivatives). In contrast, the internal cleavage of the jacalin chain permits free rotation of the homologous aspartic acid, rendering it capable of accepting hydrogen bonds from both possible hydroxyl configurations on C4. We suggest that, together with direct recognition of epimeric hydroxyls and the steric exclusion of disfavored ligands, conformational restriction of the lectin should be considered to be a new mechanism by which selectivity may be built into carbohydrate binding sites. Jacalin and KM+ adopt the beta-prism fold already observed in two unrelated protein families. Despite presenting little or no sequence similarity, an analysis of the beta-prism reveals a canonical feature repeatedly present in all such structures, which is based on six largely hydrophobic residues within a beta-hairpin containing two classic-type beta-bulges. We suggest the term beta-prism motif to describe this feature.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.4M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Barton GJ, Sternberg MJ. A strategy for the rapid multiple alignment of protein sequences. Confidence levels from tertiary structure comparisons. J Mol Biol. 1987 Nov 20;198(2):327–337. [PubMed]
  • Bidlingmeyer BA, Cohen SA, Tarvin TL. Rapid analysis of amino acids using pre-column derivatization. J Chromatogr. 1984 Dec 7;336(1):93–104. [PubMed]
  • Blundell T, Carney D, Gardner S, Hayes F, Howlin B, Hubbard T, Overington J, Singh DA, Sibanda BL, Sutcliffe M. 18th Sir Hans Krebs lecture. Knowledge-based protein modelling and design. Eur J Biochem. 1988 Mar 15;172(3):513–520. [PubMed]
  • Bourne Y, Rougé P, Cambillau C. X-ray structure of a (alpha-Man(1-3)beta-Man(1-4)GlcNAc)-lectin complex at 2.1-A resolution. The role of water in sugar-lectin interaction. J Biol Chem. 1990 Oct 25;265(30):18161–18165. [PubMed]
  • Chothia C, Murzin AG. New folds for all-beta proteins. Structure. 1993 Dec 15;1(4):217–222. [PubMed]
  • Elgavish S, Shaanan B. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions: different folds, common recognition principles. Trends Biochem Sci. 1997 Dec;22(12):462–467. [PubMed]
  • Ganiko L, Martins AR, Espreáfico EM, Roque-Barreira MC. Neutrophil haptotaxis induced by the lectin KM+. Glycoconj J. 1998 May;15(5):527–530. [PubMed]
  • Hagiwara K, Collet-Cassart D, Kobayashi K, Vaerman JP. Jacalin: isolation, characterization, and influence of various factors on its interaction with human IgA1, as assessed by precipitation and latex agglutination. Mol Immunol. 1988 Jan;25(1):69–83. [PubMed]
  • Hirano H, Komatsu S, Kajiwara H, Takagi Y, Tsunasawa S. Microsequence analysis of the N-terminally blocked proteins immobilized on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane by western blotting. Electrophoresis. 1993 Sep;14(9):839–846. [PubMed]
  • Hutchinson EG, Thornton JM. The Greek key motif: extraction, classification and analysis. Protein Eng. 1993 Apr;6(3):233–245. [PubMed]
  • Imanishi S, Kito-Nakamura K, Matsuoka K, Morikami A, Nakamura K. A major jasmonate-inducible protein of sweet potato, ipomoelin, is an ABA-independent wound-inducible protein. Plant Cell Physiol. 1997 Jun;38(6):643–652. [PubMed]
  • Jones TA, Thirup S. Using known substructures in protein model building and crystallography. EMBO J. 1986 Apr;5(4):819–822. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones TA, Zou JY, Cowan SW, Kjeldgaard M. Improved methods for building protein models in electron density maps and the location of errors in these models. Acta Crystallogr A. 1991 Mar 1;47(Pt 2):110–119. [PubMed]
  • Lee X, Thompson A, Zhang Z, Ton-that H, Biesterfeldt J, Ogata C, Xu L, Johnston RA, Young NM. Structure of the complex of Maclura pomifera agglutinin and the T-antigen disaccharide, Galbeta1,3GalNAc. J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 13;273(11):6312–6318. [PubMed]
  • Li JD, Carroll J, Ellar DJ. Crystal structure of insecticidal delta-endotoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis at 2.5 A resolution. Nature. 1991 Oct 31;353(6347):815–821. [PubMed]
  • Lüthy R, Bowie JU, Eisenberg D. Assessment of protein models with three-dimensional profiles. Nature. 1992 Mar 5;356(6364):83–85. [PubMed]
  • de Oliveira PS, Garratt RC, Mascarenhas YP, Beltramini LM, Roque-Barreira MC, Harvey I, Oliva G. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data of a neutrophil migration-inducing lectin (KM+) extracted from the seed of Artocarpus integrifolia. Proteins. 1997 Jan;27(1):157–159. [PubMed]
  • Orengo CA, Michie AD, Jones S, Jones DT, Swindells MB, Thornton JM. CATH--a hierarchic classification of protein domain structures. Structure. 1997 Aug 15;5(8):1093–1108. [PubMed]
  • Richardson JS, Getzoff ED, Richardson DC. The beta bulge: a common small unit of nonrepetitive protein structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Jun;75(6):2574–2578. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roque-Barreira MC, Campos-Neto A. Jacalin: an IgA-binding lectin. J Immunol. 1985 Mar;134(3):1740–1743. [PubMed]
  • Roque-Barreira MC, Praz F, Halbwachs-Mecarelli L, Greene LJ, Campos-Neto A. IgA-affinity purification and characterization of the lectin jacalin. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1986;19(2):149–157. [PubMed]
  • Sankaranarayanan R, Sekar K, Banerjee R, Sharma V, Surolia A, Vijayan M. A novel mode of carbohydrate recognition in jacalin, a Moraceae plant lectin with a beta-prism fold. Nat Struct Biol. 1996 Jul;3(7):596–603. [PubMed]
  • Santos-de-Oliveira R, Dias-Baruffi M, Thomaz SM, Beltramini LM, Roque-Barreira MC. A neutrophil migration-inducing lectin from Artocarpus integrifolia. J Immunol. 1994 Aug 15;153(4):1798–1807. [PubMed]
  • Sharma V, Surolia A. Analyses of carbohydrate recognition by legume lectins: size of the combining site loops and their primary specificity. J Mol Biol. 1997 Mar 28;267(2):433–445. [PubMed]
  • Sharon N, Lis H. Carbohydrates in cell recognition. Sci Am. 1993 Jan;268(1):82–89. [PubMed]
  • Sharon N, Lis H. Lectins--proteins with a sweet tooth: functions in cell recognition. Essays Biochem. 1995;30:59–75. [PubMed]
  • Shimizu T, Morikawa K. The beta-prism: a new folding motif. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996 Jan;21(1):3–6. [PubMed]
  • Shimizu T, Vassylyev DG, Kido S, Doi Y, Morikawa K. Crystal structure of vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I): a folding motif with homologous Greek key structures related by an internal three-fold symmetry. EMBO J. 1994 Mar 1;13(5):1003–1010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suresh S, Rani PG, Pratap JV, Sankaranarayana R, Surolia A, Vijayan M. Homology between jacalin and artocarpin from jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) seeds. Partial sequence and preliminary crystallographic studies of artocarpin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1997 Jul 1;53(Pt 4):469–471. [PubMed]
  • Van Damme EJ, Barre A, Verhaert P, Rougé P, Peumans WJ. Molecular cloning of the mitogenic mannose/maltose-specific rhizome lectin from Calystegia sepium. FEBS Lett. 1996 Nov 18;397(2-3):352–356. [PubMed]
  • Vriend G. WHAT IF: a molecular modeling and drug design program. J Mol Graph. 1990 Mar;8(1):52–29. [PubMed]
  • Weis WI, Drickamer K. Structural basis of lectin-carbohydrate recognition. Annu Rev Biochem. 1996;65:441–473. [PubMed]
  • Yang H, Czapla TH. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding jacalin isolectins. J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 15;268(8):5905–5910. [PubMed]
  • Young NM, Johnston RA, Watson DC. The amino acid sequences of jacalin and the Maclura pomifera agglutinin. FEBS Lett. 1991 May 6;282(2):382–384. [PubMed]

Articles from Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society are provided here courtesy of The Protein Society


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...