• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Aug 1987; 169(8): 3429–3434.
PMCID: PMC212413

Sodium-coupled motility in a swimming cyanobacterium.

Abstract

The energetics of motility in Synechococcus strain WH8113 were studied to understand the unique nonflagellar swimming of this cyanobacterium. There was a specific sodium requirement for motility such that cells were immotile below 10 mM external sodium and cell speed increased with increasing sodium levels above 10 mM to a maximum of about 15 microns/s at 150 to 250 mM sodium. The sodium motive force increased similarly with increasing external sodium from -120 to -165 mV, but other energetic parameters including proton motive force, electrical potential, the proton diffusion gradient, and the sodium diffusion gradient did not show such a correlation. Over a range of external sodium concentrations, cell speed was greater in alkaline environments than in neutral or acidic environments. Monensin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone inhibited motility and affected components of sodium motive force but did not affect ATP levels. Cells were motile when incubated with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and arsenate, which decreased cellular ATP to about 2% of control values. The results of this investigation are consistent with the conclusion that the direct source of energy for Synechococcus motility is a sodium motive force and that below a threshold of about -100 mV, cells are immotile.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Block SM, Berg HC. Successive incorporation of force-generating units in the bacterial rotary motor. Nature. 309(5967):470–472. [PubMed]
  • Chang LE, Pate JL, Betzig RJ. Isolation and characterization of nonspreading mutants of the gliding bacterium Cytophaga johnsonae. J Bacteriol. 1984 Jul;159(1):26–35. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dibrov PA, Kostryko VA, Lazarova RL, Skulachev VP, Smirnova IA. The sodium cycle. I. Na+-dependent motility and modes of membrane energization in the marine alkalotolerant vibrio Alginolyticus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Jul 23;850(3):449–457. [PubMed]
  • Dibrov PA, Lazarova RL, Skulachev VP, Verkhovskaya ML. The sodium cycle. II. Na+-coupled oxidative phosphorylation in Vibrio alginolyticus cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Jul 23;850(3):458–465. [PubMed]
  • Glagolev AN, Skulachev VP. The proton pump is a molecular engine of motile bacteria. Nature. 1978 Mar 16;272(5650):280–282. [PubMed]
  • Gober JW, Kashket ER. H+/ATP stoichiometry of cowpea Rhizobium sp. strain 32H1 cells grown under nitrogen-fixing and nitrogen-nonfixing conditions. J Bacteriol. 1984 Oct;160(1):216–221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goulbourne EA, Jr, Greenberg EP. Relationship between proton motive force and motility in Spirochaeta aurantia. J Bacteriol. 1980 Sep;143(3):1450–1457. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hirota N, Imae Y. Na+-driven flagellar motors of an alkalophilic Bacillus strain YN-1. J Biol Chem. 1983 Sep 10;258(17):10577–10581. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan HB, Greenberg EP. Diffusion of autoinducer is involved in regulation of the Vibrio fischeri luminescence system. J Bacteriol. 1985 Sep;163(3):1210–1214. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kashket ER. The proton motive force in bacteria: a critical assessment of methods. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1985;39:219–242. [PubMed]
  • Kashket ER, Blanchard AG, Metzger WC. Proton motive force during growth of Streptococcus lactis cells. J Bacteriol. 1980 Jul;143(1):128–134. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Keller KH, Grady M, Dworkin M. Surface tension gradients: feasible model for gliding motility of Myxococcus xanthus. J Bacteriol. 1983 Sep;155(3):1358–1366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lapidus IR, Berg HC. Gliding motility of Cytophaga sp. strain U67. J Bacteriol. 1982 Jul;151(1):384–398. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Larsen SH, Adler J, Gargus JJ, Hogg RW. Chemomechanical coupling without ATP: the source of energy for motility and chemotaxis in bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Apr;71(4):1239–1243. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Macnab RM. Bacterial motility and chemotaxis: the molecular biology of a behavioral system. CRC Crit Rev Biochem. 1978;5(4):291–341. [PubMed]
  • Macnab RM, Aizawa S. Bacterial motility and the bacterial flagellar motor. Annu Rev Biophys Bioeng. 1984;13:51–83. [PubMed]
  • Manson MD, Tedesco PM, Berg HC. Energetics of flagellar rotation in bacteria. J Mol Biol. 1980 Apr 15;138(3):541–561. [PubMed]
  • Miller JB, Koshland DE., Jr Sensory electrophysiology of bacteria: relationship of the membrane potential to motility and chemotaxis in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Nov;74(11):4752–4756. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ong LJ, Glazer AN, Waterbury JB. An unusual phycoerythrin from a marine cyanobacterium. Science. 1984 Apr 6;224(4644):80–83. [PubMed]
  • Sundberg SA, Bogomolni RA, Spudich JL. Selection and properties of phototaxis-deficient mutants of Halobacterium halobium. J Bacteriol. 1985 Oct;164(1):282–287. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Waterbury JB, Willey JM, Franks DG, Valois FW, Watson SW. A cyanobacterium capable of swimming motility. Science. 1985 Oct 4;230(4721):74–76. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...