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J Bacteriol. 1987 Jul; 169(7): 3340–3349.
PMCID: PMC212388

Regulation of Escherichia coli fumarate reductase (frdABCD) operon expression by respiratory electron acceptors and the fnr gene product.


The fumarate reductase enzyme complex, encoded by the frdABCD operon, allows Escherichia coli to utilize fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic oxidative phosphorylation. To analyze the expression of fumarate reductase, protein and operon fusions were constructed between the frdA and the lacZ genes and introduced onto the E. coli chromosome at the lambda attachment site. Expression of beta-galactosidase from either fusion was increased 10-fold during anaerobic versus aerobic cell growth, increased an additional 1.5-fold by the presence of fumarate, the substrate, and decreased 23-fold by nitrate, a preferred electron acceptor. The addition of trimethylamine-N-oxide as an electron acceptor did not significantly alter frdA'-'lacZ expression. Control of frd operon expression is therefore exerted at the transcriptional level in response to the availability of the electron acceptors oxygen, fumarate, and nitrate. Anaerobic induction of frdA'-'lacZ expression was impaired in an fnr mutant and was restored when the fnr+ gene was provided in trans, thus establishing that the fnr gene product, Fnr, is responsible for the anaerobic activation of frd operon expression. Nitrate repression of frdA'-'lacZ expression was observed under either aerobic or anaerobic cell growth conditions in both wild-type and fnr mutant strains, demonstrating that the mechanism for nitrate repression is independent of nitrate respiration and oxygen control imparted by Fnr. Studies performed with a fnr'-'lacZ protein fusion confirmed that the fnr gene is expressed both aerobically and anaerobically. A model is proposed for the regulation of frdABCD operon expression in response to the availability of the alternate terminal electron acceptors oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate.

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Selected References

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