• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. Dec 2, 1994; 127(6): 1957–1964.
PMCID: PMC2120302

Traction forces generated by locomoting keratocytes

Abstract

Traction forces produced by moving fibroblasts have been observed as distortions in flexible substrata including wrinkling of thin, silicone rubber films. Traction forces generated by fibroblast lamellae were thought to represent the forces required to move the cell forwards. However, traction forces could not be detected with faster moving cell types such as leukocytes and growth cones (Harris, A. K., D. Stopak, and P. Wild. 1981. Nature (Lond.). 290:249-251). We have developed a new assay in which traction forces produced by rapidly locomoting fish keratocytes can be detected by the two-dimensional displacements of small beads embedded in the plane of an elastic substratum. Traction forces were not detected at the rapidly extending front edge of the cell. Instead the largest traction forces were exerted perpendicular to the left and right cell margins. The maximum traction forces exerted by keratocytes were estimated to be approximately 2 x 10(-8) N. The pattern of traction forces can be related to the locomotion of a single keratocyte in terms of lamellar contractility and area of close cell- substratum contact.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.3M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bereiter-Hahn J, Strohmeier R, Kunzenbacher I, Beck K, Vöth M. Locomotion of Xenopus epidermis cells in primary culture. J Cell Sci. 1981 Dec;52:289–311. [PubMed]
  • Chen WT. Induction of spreading during fibroblast movement. J Cell Biol. 1979 Jun;81(3):684–691. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Couchman JR, Rees DA. The behaviour of fibroblasts migrating from chick heart explants: changes in adhesion, locomotion and growth, and in the distribution of actomyosin and fibronectin. J Cell Sci. 1979 Oct;39:149–165. [PubMed]
  • Evans E. New physical concepts for cell amoeboid motion. Biophys J. 1993 Apr;64(4):1306–1322. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Evans E, Leung A, Zhelev D. Synchrony of cell spreading and contraction force as phagocytes engulf large pathogens. J Cell Biol. 1993 Sep;122(6):1295–1300. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harris AK, Wild P, Stopak D. Silicone rubber substrata: a new wrinkle in the study of cell locomotion. Science. 1980 Apr 11;208(4440):177–179. [PubMed]
  • Harris AK, Stopak D, Wild P. Fibroblast traction as a mechanism for collagen morphogenesis. Nature. 1981 Mar 19;290(5803):249–251. [PubMed]
  • Heath J, Holifield B. Cell locomotion. Actin alone in lamellipodia. Nature. 1991 Jul 11;352(6331):107–108. [PubMed]
  • Heidemann SR, Lamoureux P, Buxbaum RE. Growth cone behavior and production of traction force. J Cell Biol. 1990 Nov;111(5 Pt 1):1949–1957. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Izzard CS, Lochner LR. Formation of cell-to-substrate contacts during fibroblast motility: an interference-reflexion study. J Cell Sci. 1980 Apr;42:81–116. [PubMed]
  • Kolega J. Effects of mechanical tension on protrusive activity and microfilament and intermediate filament organization in an epidermal epithelium moving in culture. J Cell Biol. 1986 Apr;102(4):1400–1411. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee J, Ishihara A, Theriot JA, Jacobson K. Principles of locomotion for simple-shaped cells. Nature. 1993 Mar 11;362(6416):167–171. [PubMed]
  • Oliver T, Lee J, Jacobson K. Forces exerted by locomoting cells. Semin Cell Biol. 1994 Jun;5(3):139–147. [PubMed]
  • Theriot JA, Mitchison TJ. Actin microfilament dynamics in locomoting cells. Nature. 1991 Jul 11;352(6331):126–131. [PubMed]
  • Theriot JA, Mitchison TJ. Comparison of actin and cell surface dynamics in motile fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1992 Oct;119(2):367–377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...