Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. 1994 Jul 1; 126(1): 111–126.
PMCID: PMC2120102

Characterization of caveolin-rich membrane domains isolated from an endothelial-rich source: implications for human disease


Caveolae are 50-100-nm membrane microdomains that represent a subcompartment of the plasma membrane. Previous morphological studies have implicated caveolae in (a) the transcytosis of macromolecules (including LDL and modified LDLs) across capillary endothelial cells, (b) the uptake of small molecules via a process termed potocytosis involving GPI-linked receptor molecules and an unknown anion transport protein, (c) interactions with the actin-based cytoskeleton, and (d) the compartmentalization of certain signaling molecules, including G- protein coupled receptors. Caveolin, a 22-kD integral membrane protein, is an important structural component of caveolae that was first identified as a major v-Src substrate in Rous sarcoma virus transformed cells. This finding initially suggested a relationship between caveolin, transmembrane signaling, and cellular transformation. We have recently developed a procedure for isolating caveolin-rich membrane domains from cultured cells. To facilitate biochemical manipulations, we have applied this procedure to lung tissue--an endothelial and caveolin-rich source-allowing large scale preparation of these complexes. These membrane domains retain approximately 85% of caveolin and approximately 55% of a GPI-linked marker protein, while they exclude > or = 98% of integral plasma membrane protein markers and > or = 99.6% of other organelle-specific membrane markers tested. Characterization of these complexes by micro-sequencing and immuno- blotting reveals known receptors for modified forms of LDL (scavenger receptors: CD 36 and RAGE), multiple GPI-linked proteins, an anion transporter (plasma membrane porin), cytoskeletal elements, and cytoplasmic signaling molecules--including Src-like kinases, hetero- trimeric G-proteins, and three members of the Rap family of small GTPases (Rap 1--the Ras tumor suppressor protein, Rap 2, and TC21). At least a fraction of the actin in these complexes appeared monomeric (G- actin), suggesting that these domains could represent membrane bound sites for microfilament nucleation/assembly during signaling. Given that the majority of these proteins are known molecules, our current studies provide a systematic basis for evaluating these interactions in vivo.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.9M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abumrad NA, el-Maghrabi MR, Amri EZ, Lopez E, Grimaldi PA. Cloning of a rat adipocyte membrane protein implicated in binding or transport of long-chain fatty acids that is induced during preadipocyte differentiation. Homology with human CD36. J Biol Chem. 1993 Aug 25;268(24):17665–17668. [PubMed]
  • Akiho H, Tokumitsu Y, Noda M, Nomura Y. Decrease in coupling of Gs in v-src-transformed NIH-3T3 fibroblasts: possible involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation of Gs by pp60v-src. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1993 Jul;304(1):235–241. [PubMed]
  • Akino T. [Biochemical and clinical aspects of pulmonary surfactant proteins]. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi. 1992 Dec;30 (Suppl):5–14. [PubMed]
  • Kim S, Mizoguchi A, Kikuchi A, Takai Y. Tissue and subcellular distributions of the smg-21/rap1/Krev-1 proteins which are partly distinct from those of c-ras p21s. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun;10(6):2645–2652. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Anderson RG. Caveolae: where incoming and outgoing messengers meet. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 1;90(23):10909–10913. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Anderson RG. Plasmalemmal caveolae and GPI-anchored membrane proteins. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1993 Aug;5(4):647–652. [PubMed]
  • Anderson RG, Kamen BA, Rothberg KG, Lacey SW. Potocytosis: sequestration and transport of small molecules by caveolae. Science. 1992 Jan 24;255(5043):410–411. [PubMed]
  • Baldini G, Hohl T, Lin HY, Lodish HF. Cloning of a Rab3 isotype predominantly expressed in adipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jun 1;89(11):5049–5052. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bamezai A, Rock KL. Effect of ras-activation on the expression of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins on the plasma membrane. Oncogene. 1991 Aug;6(8):1445–1451. [PubMed]
  • Béranger F, Goud B, Tavitian A, de Gunzburg J. Association of the Ras-antagonistic Rap1/Krev-1 proteins with the Golgi complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1606–1610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blachly-Dyson E, Zambronicz EB, Yu WH, Adams V, McCabe ER, Adelman J, Colombini M, Forte M. Cloning and functional expression in yeast of two human isoforms of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, the voltage-dependent anion channel. J Biol Chem. 1993 Jan 25;268(3):1835–1841. [PubMed]
  • Bomsel M, Mostov K. Role of heterotrimeric G proteins in membrane traffic. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Dec;3(12):1317–1328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bonilla E, Fischbeck K, Schotland DL. Freeze-fracture studies of muscle caveolae in human muscular dystrophy. Am J Pathol. 1981 Aug;104(2):167–173. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bourguignon LY, Jin H, Iida N, Brandt NR, Zhang SH. The involvement of ankyrin in the regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated internal Ca2+ release from Ca2+ storage vesicles in mouse T-lymphoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1993 Apr 5;268(10):7290–7297. [PubMed]
  • Brada D, Dubach UC. Isolation of a homogeneous glucosidase II from pig kidney microsomes. Eur J Biochem. 1984 May 15;141(1):149–156. [PubMed]
  • Bretscher MS, Whytock S. Membrane-associated vesicules in fibroblasts. J Ultrastruct Res. 1977 Nov;61(2):215–217. [PubMed]
  • Brett J, Schmidt AM, Yan SD, Zou YS, Weidman E, Pinsky D, Nowygrod R, Neeper M, Przysiecki C, Shaw A, et al. Survey of the distribution of a newly characterized receptor for advanced glycation end products in tissues. Am J Pathol. 1993 Dec;143(6):1699–1712. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown DA, Rose JK. Sorting of GPI-anchored proteins to glycolipid-enriched membrane subdomains during transport to the apical cell surface. Cell. 1992 Feb 7;68(3):533–544. [PubMed]
  • Brown LF, Berse B, Van de Water L, Papadopoulos-Sergiou A, Perruzzi CA, Manseau EJ, Dvorak HF, Senger DR. Expression and distribution of osteopontin in human tissues: widespread association with luminal epithelial surfaces. Mol Biol Cell. 1992 Oct;3(10):1169–1180. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bucci C, Parton RG, Mather IH, Stunnenberg H, Simons K, Hoflack B, Zerial M. The small GTPase rab5 functions as a regulatory factor in the early endocytic pathway. Cell. 1992 Sep 4;70(5):715–728. [PubMed]
  • Caldwell RB, Slapnick SM. Freeze-fracture and lanthanum studies of the retinal microvasculature in diabetic rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992 Apr;33(5):1610–1619. [PubMed]
  • Cao LG, Fishkind DJ, Wang YL. Localization and dynamics of nonfilamentous actin in cultured cells. J Cell Biol. 1993 Oct;123(1):173–181. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coulter S, Rodbell M. Heterotrimeric G proteins in synaptoneurosome membranes are crosslinked by p-phenylenedimaleimide, yielding structures comparable in size to crosslinked tubulin and F-actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 1;89(13):5842–5846. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Creutz CE. The annexins and exocytosis. Science. 1992 Nov 6;258(5084):924–931. [PubMed]
  • Dráberová L, Dráber P. Thy-1 glycoprotein and src-like protein-tyrosine kinase p53/p56lyn are associated in large detergent-resistant complexes in rat basophilic leukemia cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15;90(8):3611–3615. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drivas GT, Shih A, Coutavas E, Rush MG, D'Eustachio P. Characterization of four novel ras-like genes expressed in a human teratocarcinoma cell line. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Apr;10(4):1793–1798. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dupree P, Parton RG, Raposo G, Kurzchalia TV, Simons K. Caveolae and sorting in the trans-Golgi network of epithelial cells. EMBO J. 1993 Apr;12(4):1597–1605. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Esposito C, Gerlach H, Brett J, Stern D, Vlassara H. Endothelial receptor-mediated binding of glucose-modified albumin is associated with increased monolayer permeability and modulation of cell surface coagulant properties. J Exp Med. 1989 Oct 1;170(4):1387–1407. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fan JY, Carpentier JL, van Obberghen E, Grunfeld C, Gorden P, Orci L. Morphological changes of the 3T3-L1 fibroblast plasma membrane upon differentiation to the adipocyte form. J Cell Sci. 1983 May;61:219–230. [PubMed]
  • Fernandez J, DeMott M, Atherton D, Mische SM. Internal protein sequence analysis: enzymatic digestion for less than 10 micrograms of protein bound to polyvinylidene difluoride or nitrocellulose membranes. Anal Biochem. 1992 Mar;201(2):255–264. [PubMed]
  • Forbes MS, Rennels ML, Nelson E. Caveolar systems and sarcoplasmic reticulum in coronary smooth muscle cells of the mouse. J Ultrastruct Res. 1979 Jun;67(3):325–339. [PubMed]
  • Fujimoto T. Calcium pump of the plasma membrane is localized in caveolae. J Cell Biol. 1993 Mar;120(5):1147–1157. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fujimoto T, Nakade S, Miyawaki A, Mikoshiba K, Ogawa K. Localization of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-like protein in plasmalemmal caveolae. J Cell Biol. 1992 Dec;119(6):1507–1513. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ghitescu L, Fixman A, Simionescu M, Simionescu N. Specific binding sites for albumin restricted to plasmalemmal vesicles of continuous capillary endothelium: receptor-mediated transcytosis. J Cell Biol. 1986 Apr;102(4):1304–1311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gimeno CJ, Ljungdahl PO, Styles CA, Fink GR. Unipolar cell divisions in the yeast S. cerevisiae lead to filamentous growth: regulation by starvation and RAS. Cell. 1992 Mar 20;68(6):1077–1090. [PubMed]
  • Glenney JR., Jr Tyrosine phosphorylation of a 22-kDa protein is correlated with transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 5;264(34):20163–20166. [PubMed]
  • Glenney JR, Jr, Zokas L. Novel tyrosine kinase substrates from Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells are present in the membrane skeleton. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jun;108(6):2401–2408. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldberg RI, Smith RM, Jarett L. Insulin and alpha 2-macroglobulin-methylamine undergo endocytosis by different mechanisms in rat adipocytes: I. Comparison of cell surface events. J Cell Physiol. 1987 Nov;133(2):203–212. [PubMed]
  • Gupta SK, Gallego C, Johnson GL, Heasley LE. MAP kinase is constitutively activated in gip2 and src transformed rat 1a fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 1992 Apr 25;267(12):7987–7990. [PubMed]
  • Hagmann J, Fishman PH. Detergent extraction of cholera toxin and gangliosides from cultured cells and isolated membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Apr 29;720(2):181–187. [PubMed]
  • Hare JF, Holocher A. Solubility in non-ionic detergents distinguishes between slowly and rapidly degraded plasma membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 25;269(8):5981–5988. [PubMed]
  • Hausdorff WP, Pitcher JA, Luttrell DK, Linder ME, Kurose H, Parsons SJ, Caron MG, Lefkowitz RJ. Tyrosine phosphorylation of G protein alpha subunits by pp60c-src. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 1;89(13):5720–5724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hooper NM, Turner AJ. Ectoenzymes of the kidney microvillar membrane. Differential solubilization by detergents can predict a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchor. Biochem J. 1988 Mar 15;250(3):865–869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huang MM, Bolen JB, Barnwell JW, Shattil SJ, Brugge JS. Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 1;88(17):7844–7848. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Huang XY, Morielli AD, Peralta EG. Tyrosine kinase-dependent suppression of a potassium channel by the G protein-coupled m1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Cell. 1993 Dec 17;75(6):1145–1156. [PubMed]
  • Izumi T, Shibata Y, Yamamoto T. Striped structures on the cytoplasmic surface membranes of the endothelial vesicles of the rat aorta revealed by quick-freeze, deep-etching replicas. Anat Rec. 1988 Mar;220(3):225–232. [PubMed]
  • Izumi T, Shibata Y, Yamamoto T. The cytoplasmic surface structures of uncoated vesicles in various tissues of rat as revealed by quick-freeze, deep-etching replicas. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo) 1989;38(1):47–53. [PubMed]
  • Jahangeer S, Rodbell M. The disaggregation theory of signal transduction revisited: further evidence that G proteins are multimeric and disaggregate to monomers when activated. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Oct 1;90(19):8782–8786. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Janmey PA, Lamb J, Allen PG, Matsudaira PT. Phosphoinositide-binding peptides derived from the sequences of gelsolin and villin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):11818–11823. [PubMed]
  • Jelinek MA, Hassell JA. Reversion of middle T antigen-transformed Rat-2 cells by Krev-1: implications for the role of p21c-ras in polyomavirus-mediated transformation. Oncogene. 1992 Sep;7(9):1687–1698. [PubMed]
  • Jürgens L, Ilsemann P, Kratzin HD, Hesse D, Eckart K, Thinnes FP, Hilschmann N. Studies on human porin. IV. The primary structures of "Porin 31HM" purified from human skeletal muscle membranes and of "Porin 31HL" derived from human B lymphocyte membranes are identical. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1991 Jul;372(7):455–463. [PubMed]
  • Kamen BA, Smith AK, Anderson RG. The folate receptor works in tandem with a probenecid-sensitive carrier in MA104 cells in vitro. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr;87(4):1442–1449. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kitayama H, Sugimoto Y, Matsuzaki T, Ikawa Y, Noda M. A ras-related gene with transformation suppressor activity. Cell. 1989 Jan 13;56(1):77–84. [PubMed]
  • Krieger M, Herz J. Structures and functions of multiligand lipoprotein receptors: macrophage scavenger receptors and LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). Annu Rev Biochem. 1994;63:601–637. [PubMed]
  • Kurzchalia TV, Dupree P, Parton RG, Kellner R, Virta H, Lehnert M, Simons K. VIP21, a 21-kD membrane protein is an integral component of trans-Golgi-network-derived transport vesicles. J Cell Biol. 1992 Sep;118(5):1003–1014. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lisanti MP, Tang ZL, Sargiacomo M. Caveolin forms a hetero-oligomeric protein complex that interacts with an apical GPI-linked protein: implications for the biogenesis of caveolae. J Cell Biol. 1993 Nov;123(3):595–604. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lodish HF, Kong N. Cyclosporin A inhibits an initial step in folding of transferrin within the endoplasmic reticulum. J Biol Chem. 1991 Aug 15;266(23):14835–14838. [PubMed]
  • Lyons TJ. Glycation and oxidation: a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Feb 25;71(6):26B–31B. [PubMed]
  • Mescher MF, Jose MJ, Balk SP. Actin-containing matrix associated with the plasma membrane of murine tumour and lymphoid cells. Nature. 1981 Jan 15;289(5794):139–144. [PubMed]
  • Miyauchi A, Alvarez J, Greenfield EM, Teti A, Grano M, Colucci S, Zambonin-Zallone A, Ross FP, Teitelbaum SL, Cheresh D, et al. Binding of osteopontin to the osteoclast integrin alpha v beta 3. Osteoporos Int. 1993;3 (Suppl 1):132–135. [PubMed]
  • Montesano R, Roth J, Robert A, Orci L. Non-coated membrane invaginations are involved in binding and internalization of cholera and tetanus toxins. Nature. 1982 Apr 15;296(5858):651–653. [PubMed]
  • Moyers JS, Bouton AH, Parsons SJ. The sites of phosphorylation by protein kinase C and an intact SH2 domain are required for the enhanced response to beta-adrenergic agonists in cells overexpressing c-src. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Apr;13(4):2391–2400. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Neeper M, Schmidt AM, Brett J, Yan SD, Wang F, Pan YC, Elliston K, Stern D, Shaw A. Cloning and expression of a cell surface receptor for advanced glycosylation end products of proteins. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 25;267(21):14998–15004. [PubMed]
  • North AJ, Galazkiewicz B, Byers TJ, Glenney JR, Jr, Small JV. Complementary distributions of vinculin and dystrophin define two distinct sarcolemma domains in smooth muscle. J Cell Biol. 1993 Mar;120(5):1159–1167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oquendo P, Hundt E, Lawler J, Seed B. CD36 directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes. Cell. 1989 Jul 14;58(1):95–101. [PubMed]
  • Payne GS, Baker D, van Tuinen E, Schekman R. Protein transport to the vacuole and receptor-mediated endocytosis by clathrin heavy chain-deficient yeast. J Cell Biol. 1988 May;106(5):1453–1461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Puchelle E, Jacquot J, Fuchey C, Burlet H, Klossek JM, Gilain L, Triglia JM, Thinnes FP, Hilschmann N. Studies on human porin. IX. Immunolocalization of porin and CFTR channels in human surface respiratory epithelium. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1993 May;374(5):297–304. [PubMed]
  • Raposo G, Dunia I, Marullo S, André C, Guillet JG, Strosberg AD, Benedetti EL, Hoebeke J. Redistribution of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on human fibroblasts induced by regulatory ligands. Biol Cell. 1987;60(2):117–123. [PubMed]
  • Raposo G, Dunia I, Delavier-Klutchko C, Kaveri S, Strosberg AD, Benedetti EL. Internalization of beta-adrenergic receptor in A431 cells involves non-coated vesicles. Eur J Cell Biol. 1989 Dec;50(2):340–352. [PubMed]
  • Robinson PJ, Millrain M, Antoniou J, Simpson E, Mellor AL. A glycophospholipid anchor is required for Qa-2-mediated T cell activation. Nature. 1989 Nov 2;342(6245):85–87. [PubMed]
  • Rothberg KG, Heuser JE, Donzell WC, Ying YS, Glenney JR, Anderson RG. Caveolin, a protein component of caveolae membrane coats. Cell. 1992 Feb 21;68(4):673–682. [PubMed]
  • Rozakis-Adcock M, McGlade J, Mbamalu G, Pelicci G, Daly R, Li W, Batzer A, Thomas S, Brugge J, Pelicci PG, et al. Association of the Shc and Grb2/Sem5 SH2-containing proteins is implicated in activation of the Ras pathway by tyrosine kinases. Nature. 1992 Dec 17;360(6405):689–692. [PubMed]
  • Ruggieri R, Bender A, Matsui Y, Powers S, Takai Y, Pringle JR, Matsumoto K. RSR1, a ras-like gene homologous to Krev-1 (smg21A/rap1A): role in the development of cell polarity and interactions with the Ras pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 1992 Feb;12(2):758–766. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sargiacomo M, Sudol M, Tang Z, Lisanti MP. Signal transducing molecules and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked proteins form a caveolin-rich insoluble complex in MDCK cells. J Cell Biol. 1993 Aug;122(4):789–807. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmidt AM, Vianna M, Gerlach M, Brett J, Ryan J, Kao J, Esposito C, Hegarty H, Hurley W, Clauss M, et al. Isolation and characterization of two binding proteins for advanced glycosylation end products from bovine lung which are present on the endothelial cell surface. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 25;267(21):14987–14997. [PubMed]
  • Schoenenberger CA, Zuk A, Kendall D, Matlin KS. Multilayering and loss of apical polarity in MDCK cells transformed with viral K-ras. J Cell Biol. 1991 Mar;112(5):873–889. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Severs NJ. Caveolae: static inpocketings of the plasma membrane, dynamic vesicles or plain artifact? J Cell Sci. 1988 Jul;90(Pt 3):341–348. [PubMed]
  • Simionescu N, Mora R, Vasile E, Lupu F, Filip DA, Simionescu M. Prelesional modifications of the vessel wall in hyperlipidemic atherogenesis. Extracellular accumulation of modified and reassembled lipoproteins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;598:1–16. [PubMed]
  • Simonson MS, Herman WH. Protein kinase C and protein tyrosine kinase activity contribute to mitogenic signaling by endothelin-1. Cross-talk between G protein-coupled receptors and pp60c-src. J Biol Chem. 1993 May 5;268(13):9347–9357. [PubMed]
  • Smart EJ, Foster DC, Ying YS, Kamen BA, Anderson RG. Protein kinase C activators inhibit receptor-mediated potocytosis by preventing internalization of caveolae. J Cell Biol. 1994 Feb;124(3):307–313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Snelting-Havinga I, Mommaas M, Van Hinsbergh VW, Daha MR, Daems WT, Vermeer BJ. Immunoelectron microscopic visualization of the transcytosis of low density lipoproteins in perfused rat arteries. Eur J Cell Biol. 1989 Feb;48(1):27–36. [PubMed]
  • Steele-Mortimer O, Clague MJ, Huber LA, Chavrier P, Gruenberg J, Gorvel JP. The N-terminal domain of a rab protein is involved in membrane-membrane recognition and/or fusion. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 1;13(1):34–41. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stefanová I, Corcoran ML, Horak EM, Wahl LM, Bolen JB, Horak ID. Lipopolysaccharide induces activation of CD14-associated protein tyrosine kinase p53/56lyn. J Biol Chem. 1993 Oct 5;268(28):20725–20728. [PubMed]
  • Stefanová I, Horejsí V, Ansotegui IJ, Knapp W, Stockinger H. GPI-anchored cell-surface molecules complexed to protein tyrosine kinases. Science. 1991 Nov 15;254(5034):1016–1019. [PubMed]
  • Streuli CH, Patel B, Critchley DR. The cholera toxin receptor ganglioside GM remains associated with triton X-100 cytoskeletons of BALB/c-3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res. 1981 Dec;136(2):247–254. [PubMed]
  • Strosberg AD. Structure/function relationship of proteins belonging to the family of receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Feb 26;196(1):1–10. [PubMed]
  • Thomas PM, Samelson LE. The glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored Thy-1 molecule interacts with the p60fyn protein tyrosine kinase in T cells. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jun 15;267(17):12317–12322. [PubMed]
  • van Corven EJ, Hordijk PL, Medema RH, Bos JL, Moolenaar WH. Pertussis toxin-sensitive activation of p21ras by G protein-coupled receptor agonists in fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Feb 15;90(4):1257–1261. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vasile E, Antohe F. An ultrastructural study of beta-very low density lipoprotein uptake and transport by valvular endothelium of hyperlipidemic rabbits. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1991 Apr;23(2):279–287. [PubMed]
  • Vasile E, Simionescu M, Simionescu N. Visualization of the binding, endocytosis, and transcytosis of low-density lipoprotein in the arterial endothelium in situ. J Cell Biol. 1983 Jun;96(6):1677–1689. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vidugiriene J, Menon AK. Early lipid intermediates in glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor assembly are synthesized in the ER and located in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the ER membrane bilayer. J Cell Biol. 1993 Jun;121(5):987–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • von Zastrow M, Kobilka BK. Ligand-regulated internalization and recycling of human beta 2-adrenergic receptors between the plasma membrane and endosomes containing transferrin receptors. J Biol Chem. 1992 Feb 15;267(5):3530–3538. [PubMed]
  • Wagner RC, Kreiner P, Barrnett RJ, Bitensky MW. Biochemical characterization and cytochemical localization of a catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in isolated capillary endothelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Nov;69(11):3175–3179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Walker SR, Williams MC, Benson B. Immunocytochemical localization of the major surfactant apoproteins in type II cells, Clara cells, and alveolar macrophages of rat lung. J Histochem Cytochem. 1986 Sep;34(9):1137–1148. [PubMed]
  • Williams SK, Devenny JJ, Bitensky MW. Micropinocytic ingestion of glycosylated albumin by isolated microvessels: possible role in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr;78(4):2393–2397. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ying YS, Anderson RG, Rothberg KG. Each caveola contains multiple glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1992;57:593–604. [PubMed]
  • Zurzolo C, van't Hof W, van Meer G, Rodriguez-Boulan E. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells. EMBO J. 1994 Jan 1;13(1):42–53. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    NCBI Bookshelf books that cite the current articles.
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.
  • Taxonomy
    Taxonomy records associated with the current articles through taxonomic information on related molecular database records (Nucleotide, Protein, Gene, SNP, Structure).
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...