• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. Jun 1, 1994; 125(5): 1147–1156.
PMCID: PMC2120053

Evidence for an interplay between cell cycle progression and the initiation of differentiation between life cycle forms of African trypanosomes

Abstract

Successful transmission of the African trypanosome between the mammalian host blood-stream and the tsetse fly vector involves dramatic alterations in the parasite's morphology and biochemistry. This differentiation through to the tsetse midgut procyclic form is accompanied by re-entry into a proliferative cell cycle. Using a synchronous differentiation model and a variety of markers diagnostic for progress through both differentiation and the cell cycle, we have investigated the interplay between these two processes. Our results implicate a relationship between the trypanosome cell cycle position and the perception of the differentiation signal and demonstrate that irreversible commitment to the differentiation occurs rapidly after induction. Furthermore, we show that re-entry into the cell cycle in the differentiating population is synchronous, and that once initiated, progress through the differentiation pathway can be uncoupled from progress through the cell cycle.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.7M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Balber AE. Trypanosoma brucei: fluxes of the morphological variants in intact and X-irradiated mice. Exp Parasitol. 1972 Apr;31(2):307–319. [PubMed]
  • Bass KE, Wang CC. The in vitro differentiation of pleomorphic Trypanosoma brucei from bloodstream into procyclic form requires neither intermediary nor short-stumpy stage. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1991 Feb;44(2):261–270. [PubMed]
  • Bass KE, Wang CC. Transient inhibition of protein synthesis accompanies differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei from bloodstream to procyclic forms. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1992 Nov;56(1):129–140. [PubMed]
  • Brown RC, Evans DA, Vickerman K. Changes in oxidative metabolism and ultrastructure accompanying differentiation of the mitochondrion in Trypanosoma brucei. Int J Parasitol. 1973 Sep;3(5):691–704. [PubMed]
  • Brun R, Schönenberger Cultivation and in vitro cloning or procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma brucei in a semi-defined medium. Short communication. Acta Trop. 1979 Sep;36(3):289–292. [PubMed]
  • Clayton C. Developmental regulation of nuclear gene expression in Trypanosoma brucei. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1992;43:37–66. [PubMed]
  • Cross GA. Cellular and genetic aspects of antigenic variation in trypanosomes. Annu Rev Immunol. 1990;8:83–110. [PubMed]
  • Czichos J, Nonnengaesser C, Overath P. Trypanosoma brucei: cis-aconitate and temperature reduction as triggers of synchronous transformation of bloodstream to procyclic trypomastigotes in vitro. Exp Parasitol. 1986 Oct;62(2):283–291. [PubMed]
  • Ehlers B, Czichos J, Overath P. Repression and reactivation of the variant surface glycoprotein gene in Trypanosoma brucei. FEBS Lett. 1987 Dec 10;225(1-2):53–58. [PubMed]
  • Fantes P, Nurse P. Control of cell size at division in fission yeast by a growth-modulated size control over nuclear division. Exp Cell Res. 1977 Jul;107(2):377–386. [PubMed]
  • Haber JE. Mating-type gene switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Trends Genet. 1992 Dec;8(12):446–452. [PubMed]
  • Hamm B, Schindler A, Mecke D, Duszenko M. Differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream trypomastigotes from long slender to short stumpy-like forms in axenic culture. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1990 Apr;40(1):13–22. [PubMed]
  • Hirumi H, Hirumi K. Continuous cultivation of Trypanosoma brucei blood stream forms in a medium containing a low concentration of serum protein without feeder cell layers. J Parasitol. 1989 Dec;75(6):985–989. [PubMed]
  • Kilmartin JV, Wright B, Milstein C. Rat monoclonal antitubulin antibodies derived by using a new nonsecreting rat cell line. J Cell Biol. 1982 Jun;93(3):576–582. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klar AJ. Developmental choices in mating-type interconversion in fission yeast. Trends Genet. 1992 Jun;8(6):208–213. [PubMed]
  • Markos A, Blahůsková A, Kalous M, Bysková E, Byska K, Nohýnková E. Metabolic differentiation of bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei into procyclic forms. Effect of hydroxyurea, arabinosyl adenine, and serum omission. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 1989;36(3):225–238. [PubMed]
  • Mowatt MR, Clayton CE. Developmental regulation of a novel repetitive protein of Trypanosoma brucei. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Aug;7(8):2838–2844. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newton A, Ohta N. Regulation of the cell division cycle and differentiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1990;44:689–719. [PubMed]
  • Pays E, Hanocq-Quertier J, Hanocq F, Van Assel S, Nolan D, Rolin S. Abrupt RNA changes precede the first cell division during the differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms into procyclic forms in vitro. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 1993 Sep;61(1):107–114. [PubMed]
  • Roditi I, Carrington M, Turner M. Expression of a polypeptide containing a dipeptide repeat is confined to the insect stage of Trypanosoma brucei. Nature. 1987 Jan 15;325(6101):272–274. [PubMed]
  • Roditi I, Schwarz H, Pearson TW, Beecroft RP, Liu MK, Richardson JP, Bühring HJ, Pleiss J, Bülow R, Williams RO, et al. Procyclin gene expression and loss of the variant surface glycoprotein during differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei. J Cell Biol. 1989 Feb;108(2):737–746. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sherwin T, Gull K. The cell division cycle of Trypanosoma brucei brucei: timing of event markers and cytoskeletal modulations. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1989 Jun 12;323(1218):573–588. [PubMed]
  • Sherwin T, Gull K. Visualization of detyrosination along single microtubules reveals novel mechanisms of assembly during cytoskeletal duplication in trypanosomes. Cell. 1989 Apr 21;57(2):211–221. [PubMed]
  • Sherwin T, Schneider A, Sasse R, Seebeck T, Gull K. Distinct localization and cell cycle dependence of COOH terminally tyrosinolated alpha-tubulin in the microtubules of Trypanosoma brucei brucei. J Cell Biol. 1987 Mar;104(3):439–446. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turner CM, Barry JD, Vickerman K. Loss of variable antigen during transformation of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense from bloodstream to procyclic forms in the tsetse fly. Parasitol Res. 1988;74(6):507–511. [PubMed]
  • Vickerman K. Polymorphism and mitochondrial activity in sleeping sickness trypanosomes. Nature. 1965 Nov 20;208(5012):762–766. [PubMed]
  • Vickerman K. Developmental cycles and biology of pathogenic trypanosomes. Br Med Bull. 1985 Apr;41(2):105–114. [PubMed]
  • Wehland J, Schröder HC, Weber K. Amino acid sequence requirements in the epitope recognized by the alpha-tubulin-specific rat monoclonal antibody YL 1/2. EMBO J. 1984 Jun;3(6):1295–1300. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • WIJERS DJ, WILLETT KC. Factors that may influence the infection rate of Glossina palpalis with Trypanosoma gambiense. II. The number and morphology of the trypano-somes present in the blood of the host at the time of the infected feed. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1960 Oct;54:341–350. [PubMed]
  • Woodward R, Gull K. Timing of nuclear and kinetoplast DNA replication and early morphological events in the cell cycle of Trypanosoma brucei. J Cell Sci. 1990 Jan;95(Pt 1):49–57. [PubMed]
  • Woods A, Sherwin T, Sasse R, MacRae TH, Baines AJ, Gull K. Definition of individual components within the cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma brucei by a library of monoclonal antibodies. J Cell Sci. 1989 Jul;93(Pt 3):491–500. [PubMed]
  • Ziegelbauer K, Quinten M, Schwarz H, Pearson TW, Overath P. Synchronous differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei from bloodstream to procyclic forms in vitro. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Sep 11;192(2):373–378. [PubMed]
  • Ziegelbauer K, Stahl B, Karas M, Stierhof YD, Overath P. Proteolytic release of cell surface proteins during differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei. Biochemistry. 1993 Apr 13;32(14):3737–3742. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...