Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. 1990 Jul 1; 111(1): 201–207.
PMCID: PMC2116175

Cell cycle commitment of rat muscle satellite cells


Satellite cells of adult muscle are quiescent myogenic stem cells that can be induced to enter the cell cycle by an extract of crushed muscle (Bischoff, R. 1986. Dev. Biol. 115:140-147). Here, evidence is presented that the extract acts transiently to commit cells to enter the cell cycle. Satellite cells associated with both live and killed rat myofibers in culture were briefly exposed to muscle extract and the increase in cell number was determined at 48 h in vitro, before the onset of fusion. An 8-12-h exposure to extract with killed, but not live, myofibers was sufficient to produce maximum proliferation of satellite cells. Continuous exposure for over 40 h was needed to sustain proliferation of satellite cells on live myofibers. The role of serum factors was also studied. Neither serum nor muscle extract alone was able to induce proliferation of satellite cells. In the presence of muscle extract, however, satellite cell proliferation was directly proportional to the concentration of serum in the medium. These results suggest that mitogens released from crushed muscle produce long-lasting effects that commit quiescent satellite cells to divide, whereas serum factors are needed to maintain progression through the cell cycle. Contact with a viable myofiber modulates the response of satellite cells to growth factors.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.0M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Allen RE, Dodson MV, Luiten LS. Regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation by bovine pituitary fibroblast growth factor. Exp Cell Res. 1984 May;152(1):154–160. [PubMed]
  • Appell HJ, Forsberg S, Hollmann W. Satellite cell activation in human skeletal muscle after training: evidence for muscle fiber neoformation. Int J Sports Med. 1988 Aug;9(4):297–299. [PubMed]
  • Armand O, Boutineau AM, Mauger A, Pautou MP, Kieny M. Origin of satellite cells in avian skeletal muscles. Arch Anat Microsc Morphol Exp. 1983;72(2):163–181. [PubMed]
  • Beck F, Samani NJ, Byrne S, Morgan K, Gebhard R, Brammar WJ. Histochemical localization of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA in the rat between birth and adulthood. Development. 1988 Sep;104(1):29–39. [PubMed]
  • Bischoff R. Proliferation of muscle satellite cells on intact myofibers in culture. Dev Biol. 1986 May;115(1):129–139. [PubMed]
  • Bischoff R. A satellite cell mitogen from crushed adult muscle. Dev Biol. 1986 May;115(1):140–147. [PubMed]
  • Bischoff R. Analysis of muscle regeneration using single myofibers in culture. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989 Oct;21(5 Suppl):S164–S172. [PubMed]
  • Bischoff R, Holtzer H. Mitosis and the processes of differentiation of myogenic cells in vitro. J Cell Biol. 1969 Apr;41(1):188–200. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carlson BM. Regeneration fo the completely excised gastrocnemius muscle in the frog and rat from minced muscle fragments. J Morphol. 1968 Aug;125(4):447–472. [PubMed]
  • Clegg CH, Linkhart TA, Olwin BB, Hauschka SD. Growth factor control of skeletal muscle differentiation: commitment to terminal differentiation occurs in G1 phase and is repressed by fibroblast growth factor. J Cell Biol. 1987 Aug;105(2):949–956. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Darr KC, Schultz E. Exercise-induced satellite cell activation in growing and mature skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985) 1987 Nov;63(5):1816–1821. [PubMed]
  • DiMario J, Buffinger N, Yamada S, Strohman RC. Fibroblast growth factor in the extracellular matrix of dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscle. Science. 1989 May 12;244(4905):688–690. [PubMed]
  • DiMario J, Strohman RC. Satellite cells from dystrophic (mdx) mouse muscle are stimulated by fibroblast growth factor in vitro. Differentiation. 1988 Nov;39(1):42–49. [PubMed]
  • Doi T, Striker LJ, Elliot SJ, Conti FG, Striker GE. Insulinlike growth factor-1 is a progression factor for human mesangial cells. Am J Pathol. 1989 Feb;134(2):395–404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Elsdale T, Foley R. Morphogenetic aspects of multilayering in Petri dish cultures of human fetal lung fibroblasts. J Cell Biol. 1969 Apr;41(1):298–311. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Florini JR. Hormonal control of muscle growth. Muscle Nerve. 1987 Sep;10(7):577–598. [PubMed]
  • Florini JR, Magri KA. Effects of growth factors on myogenic differentiation. Am J Physiol. 1989 Apr;256(4 Pt 1):C701–C711. [PubMed]
  • Foster AH, Carlson BM. Myotoxicity of local anesthetics and regeneration of the damaged muscle fibers. Anesth Analg. 1980 Oct;59(10):727–736. [PubMed]
  • Hefley TJ, Stern PH, Brand JS. Enzymatic isolation of cells from neonatal calvaria using two purified enzymes from Clostridium histolyticum. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Nov;149(1):227–236. [PubMed]
  • Hortobágyi T, Denahan T. Variability in creatine kinase: methodological, exercise, and clinically related factors. Int J Sports Med. 1989 Apr;10(2):69–80. [PubMed]
  • Jennische E, Hansson HA. Regenerating skeletal muscle cells express insulin-like growth factor I. Acta Physiol Scand. 1987 Jun;130(2):327–332. [PubMed]
  • Jennische E, Skottner A, Hansson HA. Satellite cells express the trophic factor IGF-I in regenerating skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol Scand. 1987 Jan;129(1):9–15. [PubMed]
  • Joseph-Silverstein J, Consigli SA, Lyser KM, Ver Pault C. Basic fibroblast growth factor in the chick embryo: immunolocalization to striated muscle cells and their precursors. J Cell Biol. 1989 Jun;108(6):2459–2466. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kardami E, Spector D, Strohman RC. Myogenic growth factor present in skeletal muscle is purified by heparin-affinity chromatography. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(23):8044–8047. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kelly AM. Satellite cells and myofiber growth in the rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Dev Biol. 1978 Jul;65(1):1–10. [PubMed]
  • Kouyoumdjian JA, Harris JB, Johnson MA. Muscle necrosis caused by the sub-units of crotoxin. Toxicon. 1986;24(6):575–583. [PubMed]
  • Lathrop B, Olson E, Glaser L. Control by fibroblast growth factor of differentiation in the BC3H1 muscle cell line. J Cell Biol. 1985 May;100(5):1540–1547. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leof EB, Wharton W, van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and somatomedin C regulate G1 progression in competent BALB/c-3T3 cells. Exp Cell Res. 1982 Sep;141(1):107–115. [PubMed]
  • Maltin CA, Harris JB, Cullen MJ. Regeneration of mammalian skeletal muscle following the injection of the snake-venom toxin, taipoxin. Cell Tissue Res. 1983;232(3):565–577. [PubMed]
  • McGeachie JK, Grounds MD. Initiation and duration of muscle precursor replication after mild and severe injury to skeletal muscle of mice. An autoradiographic study. Cell Tissue Res. 1987 Apr;248(1):125–130. [PubMed]
  • Moses AC, Nissley SP, Short PA, Rechler MM, White RM, Knight AB, Higa OZ. Increased levels of multiplication-stimulating activity, an insulin-like growth factor, in fetal rat serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jun;77(6):3649–3653. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Murray MA, Robbins N. Cell proliferation in denervated muscle: identity and origin of dividing cells. Neuroscience. 1982 Jul;7(7):1823–1833. [PubMed]
  • Noakes TD. Effect of exercise on serum enzyme activities in humans. Sports Med. 1987 Jul-Aug;4(4):245–267. [PubMed]
  • Ontell M. Muscle satellite cells: a validated technique for light microscopic identification and a quantitative study of changes in their population following denervation. Anat Rec. 1974 Feb;178(2):211–227. [PubMed]
  • Pledger WJ, Stiles CD, Antoniades HN, Scher CD. Induction of DNA synthesis in BALB/c 3T3 cells by serum components: reevaluation of the commitment process. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Oct;74(10):4481–4485. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Prescott DM. Cell reproduction. Int Rev Cytol. 1987;100:93–128. [PubMed]
  • Roberts P, McGeachie JK, Grounds MD, Smith ER. Initiation and duration of myogenic precursor cell replication in transplants of intact skeletal muscles: an autoradiographic study in mice. Anat Rec. 1989 May;224(1):1–6. [PubMed]
  • Schiaffino S, Bormioli SP, Aloisi M. The fate of newly formed satellite cells during compensatory muscle hypertrophy. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol. 1976 Aug 11;21(2):113–118. [PubMed]
  • Shafiq SA, Gorycki MA. Regeneration in skeletal muscle of mouse: some electron-microscope observations. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1965 Jul;90(1):123–127. [PubMed]
  • Shipley GD, Ham RG. Control of entry of Swiss 3T3 cells into S phase by fibroblast growth factor under serum-free conditions. Exp Cell Res. 1983 Jul;146(2):261–270. [PubMed]
  • Stiles CD, Capone GT, Scher CD, Antoniades HN, Van Wyk JJ, Pledger WJ. Dual control of cell growth by somatomedins and platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Mar;76(3):1279–1283. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor NA, Wilkinson JG. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle growth. Hypertrophy or hyperplasia? Sports Med. 1986 May-Jun;3(3):190–200. [PubMed]
  • Teräväinen H. Satellite cells of striated muscle after compression injury so slight as not to cause degeneration of the muscle fibres. Z Zellforsch Mikrosk Anat. 1970;103(3):320–327. [PubMed]
  • White TP, Esser KA. Satellite cell and growth factor involvement in skeletal muscle growth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989 Oct;21(5 Suppl):S158–S163. [PubMed]
  • Yamada S, Buffinger N, DiMario J, Strohman RC. Fibroblast growth factor is stored in fiber extracellular matrix and plays a role in regulating muscle hypertrophy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989 Oct;21(5 Suppl):S173–S180. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem chemical compound records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records. Multiple substance records may contribute to the PubChem compound record.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...