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J Cell Biol. Dec 1, 1989; 109(6): 3073–3083.
PMCID: PMC2115908

The cytomechanics of axonal elongation and retraction

Abstract

Neurites of PC12 and chick dorsal root ganglion neurons behave as viscoelastic solids in response to applied forces. This passive behavior can be modeled with three mechanical elements; a relatively stiff, undamped spring in series with a Voight element composed of a less stiff spring in parallel with a dashpot. In response to applied tensions greater than 100 microdynes, PC12 cells show lengthening behavior distinct from and in addition to the passive viscoelastic response. We interpret this as "towed growth" (Bray, D. 1984. Dev. Biol. 102:379-389) because the neurites can become twice as long without obvious thinning of the neurite and because in two cases neurite tensions fell below original rest tensions, a result that cannot be obtained with passive viscoelastic elements. The rate of towed growth showed a linear dependence of growth rate with applied tensions in 8 of 12 PC12 neurites exposed to applied tension greater than 100 microdynes. Both PC12 and chick sensory neurons showed evidence of retraction when neurite tensions were suddenly diminished. This response was measured as tension recovery after slackening in chick sensory neurites. In 62% of the cases, tension recovery exceeded and sometimes doubled the preexperimental steady-state tension. Our data indicate that this response is active tension generation by the neurite shaft. We conclude that neurite length is regulated by axial tension in both elongation and retraction. Our data suggest a three-way controller: above some tension set point, the neurite is stimulated to elongate. Below some different, lower tension threshold the neurite is stimulated to retract. Between these two tension thresholds, the neurite responds passively as a viscoelastic solid.

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