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J Cell Biol. Feb 1, 1985; 100(2): 477–485.
PMCID: PMC2113445

Sulfated proteoglycan synthesis by confluent cultures of rabbit costal chondrocytes grown in the presence of fibroblast growth factor

Abstract

We examined the effect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) on proteoglycan synthesis by rabbit costal chondrocyte cultures maintained on plastic tissue culture dishes. Low density rabbit costal chondrocyte cultures grown in the absence of FGF gave rise at confluency to a heterogeneous cell population composed of fibroblastic cells and poorly differentiated chondrocytes. When similar cultures were grown in the presence of FGF, the confluent cultures organized into a homogenous cartilage-like tissue composed of rounded cells surrounded by a refractile matrix. The cell ultrastructure and that of the pericellular matrix were similar to those seen in vivo. The expression of the cartilage phenotype in confluent chondrocyte cultures grown from the sparse stage in the presence vs. absence of FGF was reflected by a fivefold increase in the rate of incorporation of [35S]sulfate into proteoglycans. These FGF effects were only observed when FGF was present during the cell logarithmic growth phase, but not when it was added after chondrocyte cultures became confluent. High molecular weight, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans synthesized by confluent chondrocyte cultures grown in the presence of FGF were slightly larger in size than that produced by confluent cultures grown in the absence of FGF. The major sulfated glycosaminoglycans associated with low molecular weight proteoglycan in FGF-exposed cultures were chondroitin sulfate, while in cultures not exposed to FGF they were chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. Regardless of whether or not cells were grown in the presence or absence of FGF, the 6S/4S disaccharide ratio of chondroitin sulfate chains associated with high and low molecular weight proteoglycans synthesized by confluent cultures was the same. These results provide evidence that when low density chondrocyte cultures maintained on plastic tissue culture dishes are grown in the presence of FGF, it results in a stimulation of the expression and stabilization of the chondrocyte phenotype once cultures become confluent.

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Selected References

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