Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Apr 1988; 170(4): 1775–1782.
PMCID: PMC211030

Distribution and diversity of hsd genes in Escherichia coli and other enteric bacteria.

Abstract

We screened Salmonella typhimurium, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella boydii, and many isolates of Escherichia coli for DNA sequences homologous to those encoding each of two unrelated type I restriction and modification systems (EcoK and EcoA). Both K- and A-related hsd genes were identified, but never both in the same strain. S. typhimurium encodes three restriction and modification systems, but its DNA hybridized only to the K-specific probe which we know to identify the StySB system. No homology to either probe was detected in the majority of E. coli strains, but in C. freundii, we identified homology to the A-specific probe. We cloned this region of the C. freundii genome and showed that it encoded a functional, A-related restriction system whose specificity differs from those of known type I enzymes. Sequences immediately flanking the hsd K genes of E. coli K-12 and the hsd A genes of E. coli 15T- were shown to be homologous, indicating similar or even identical positions in their respective chromosomes. E. coli C has no known restriction system, and the organization of its chromosome is consistent with deletion of the three hsd genes and their neighbor, mcrB.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Appleyard RK. Segregation of New Lysogenic Types during Growth of a Doubly Lysogenic Strain Derived from Escherichia Coli K12. Genetics. 1954 Jul;39(4):440–452. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arber W. Host-controlled modification of bacteriophage. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1965;19:365–378. [PubMed]
  • Arber W, Wauters-Willems D. Host specificity of DNA produced by Escherichia coli. XII. The two restriction and modification systems of strain 15T-. Mol Gen Genet. 1970;108(3):203–217. [PubMed]
  • Bertani LE. Abortive induction of bacteriophage P2. Virology. 1968 Sep;36(1):87–103. [PubMed]
  • Borck K, Beggs JD, Brammar WJ, Hopkins AS, Murray NE. The construction in vitro of transducing derivatives of phage lambda. Mol Gen Genet. 1976 Jul 23;146(2):199–207. [PubMed]
  • Bouché JP, Gélugne JP, Louarn J, Louarn JM, Kaiser K. Relationships between the physical and genetic maps of a 470 x 10(3) base-pair region around the terminus of Escherichia coli K12 DNA replication. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jan 5;154(1):21–32. [PubMed]
  • Boyer HW, Roulland-Dussoix D. A complementation analysis of the restriction and modification of DNA in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1969 May 14;41(3):459–472. [PubMed]
  • Bullas LR, Colson C. DNA restriction and modification systems in Salmonella. III. SP, a Salmonella potsdam system allelic to the SB system in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Gen Genet. 1975 Aug 27;139(3):177–188. [PubMed]
  • Bullas LR, Colson C, Neufeld B. Deoxyribonucleic acid restriction and modification systems in Salmonella: chromosomally located systems of different serotypes. J Bacteriol. 1980 Jan;141(1):275–292. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Caugant DA, Levin BR, Selander RK. Genetic diversity and temporal variation in the E. coli population of a human host. Genetics. 1981 Jul;98(3):467–490. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB, Helinski DR. Supercoiled circular DNA-protein complex in Escherichia coli: purification and induced conversion to an opern circular DNA form. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1969 Apr;62(4):1159–1166. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dixon R, Kennedy C, Kondorosi A, Krishnapillai V, Merrick M. Complementation analysis of Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants defective in nitrogen fixation. Mol Gen Genet. 1977 Nov 29;157(2):189–198. [PubMed]
  • DUGUID JP, SMITH IW, DEMPSTER G, EDMUNDS PN. Non-flagellar filamentous appendages (fimbriae) and haemagglutinating activity in Bacterium coli. J Pathol Bacteriol. 1955 Oct;70(2):335–348. [PubMed]
  • Endlich B, Linn S. The DNA restriction endonuclease of Escherichia coli B. II. Further studies of the structure of DNA intermediates and products. J Biol Chem. 1985 May 10;260(9):5729–5738. [PubMed]
  • Frischauf AM, Lehrach H, Poustka A, Murray N. Lambda replacement vectors carrying polylinker sequences. J Mol Biol. 1983 Nov 15;170(4):827–842. [PubMed]
  • Fuller-Pace FV, Bullas LR, Delius H, Murray NE. Genetic recombination can generate altered restriction specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Oct;81(19):6095–6099. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fuller-Pace FV, Cowan GM, Murray NE. EcoA and EcoE: alternatives to the EcoK family of type I restriction and modification systems of Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 1985 Nov 5;186(1):65–75. [PubMed]
  • Fuller-Pace FV, Murray NE. Two DNA recognition domains of the specificity polypeptides of a family of type I restriction enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(24):9368–9372. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gann AA, Campbell AJ, Collins JF, Coulson AF, Murray NE. Reassortment of DNA recognition domains and the evolution of new specificities. Mol Microbiol. 1987 Jul;1(1):13–22. [PubMed]
  • Gough JA, Murray NE. Sequence diversity among related genes for recognition of specific targets in DNA molecules. J Mol Biol. 1983 May 5;166(1):1–19. [PubMed]
  • Kaiser K, Murray NE. Physical characterisation of the "Rac prophage" in E. coli K12. Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Sep;175(2):159–174. [PubMed]
  • Murray NE, Brammar WJ, Murray K. Lambdoid phages that simplify the recovery of in vitro recombinants. Mol Gen Genet. 1977 Jan 7;150(1):53–61. [PubMed]
  • Murray NE, Gough JA, Suri B, Bickle TA. Structural homologies among type I restriction-modification systems. EMBO J. 1982;1(5):535–539. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nagaraja V, Stieger M, Nager C, Hadi SM, Bickle TA. The nucleotide sequence recognised by the Escherichia coli D type I restriction and modification enzyme. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jan 25;13(2):389–399. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Price C, Bickle TA. A possible role for DNA restriction in bacterial evolution. Microbiol Sci. 1986 Oct;3(10):296–299. [PubMed]
  • Price C, Pripfl T, Bickle TA. EcoR124 and EcoR124/3: the first members of a new family of type I restriction and modification systems. Eur J Biochem. 1987 Aug 17;167(1):111–115. [PubMed]
  • Radding CM. Molecular mechanisms in genetic recombination. Annu Rev Genet. 1973;7:87–111. [PubMed]
  • Raleigh EA, Wilson G. Escherichia coli K-12 restricts DNA containing 5-methylcytosine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(23):9070–9074. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rigby PW, Dieckmann M, Rhodes C, Berg P. Labeling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific activity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J Mol Biol. 1977 Jun 15;113(1):237–251. [PubMed]
  • Ross TK, Braymer HD. Localization of a genetic region involved in McrB restriction by Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1987 Apr;169(4):1757–1759. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sain B, Murray NE. The hsd (host specificity) genes of E. coli K 12. Mol Gen Genet. 1980;180(1):35–46. [PubMed]
  • Selander RK, Levin BR. Genetic diversity and structure in Escherichia coli populations. Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):545–547. [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Studier FW. The genetics and physiology of bacteriophage T7. Virology. 1969 Nov;39(3):562–574. [PubMed]
  • Suri B, Bickle TA. EcoA: the first member of a new family of type I restriction modification systems. Gene organization and enzymatic activities. J Mol Biol. 1985 Nov 5;186(1):77–85. [PubMed]
  • Wilson GG, Tanyashin VI, Murray NE. Molecular cloning of fragments of bacteriophage T4 DNA. Mol Gen Genet. 1977 Nov 14;156(2):203–214. [PubMed]
  • Yuan R. Structure and mechanism of multifunctional restriction endonucleases. Annu Rev Biochem. 1981;50:285–319. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...