Logo of jcellbiolHomeThe Rockefeller University PressEditorsContactInstructions for AuthorsThis issue
J Cell Biol. Mar 1, 1973; 56(3): 797–818.
PMCID: PMC2108932

CELL CONTACTS IN THE MOUSE MAMMARY GLAND

I. Normal Gland in Postnatal Development and the Secretory Cycle

Abstract

The nature and distribution of cell contacts have been examined in thin sections and freeze-fracture replicas of mammary gland samples from female C3H/Crgl mice at stages from birth through pregnancy, lactation, and postweaning involution. Epithelial cells of major mammary ducts at all stages examined are linked at their luminal borders by junctional complexes consisting of tight junctions, variable intermediate junctions, occasional small gap junctions, and one or more series of desmosomes. Scattered desmosomes and gap junctions link ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in all combinations; hemidesmosomes attach myoepithelial cells to the basal lamina. Freeze-fracture replicas confirm the erratic distribution of gap junctions and reveal a loose, irregular network of ridges comprising the continuous tight-junctional belts. Alveoli develop early in gestation and initially resemble ducts. Later, as alveoli and small ducts become actively secretory, they lose all desmosomes and most intermediate junctions, whereas tight and gap junctions persist, The tight-junctional network becomes compact and orderly, its undulating ridges oriented predominantly parallel to the luminal surface. It is suggested that these changes in junctional morphology, occurring in secretory cells around parturition, may be related to the greatly enhanced rate of movement of milk precursors and products through the lactating epithelium, or to the profound and recurrent changes in shape of secretory cells that occur in relation to myoepithelial cell contraction, or to both.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (2.3M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Amsterdam A, Ohad I, Schramm M. Dynamic changes in the ultrastructure of the acinar cell of the rat parotid gland during the secretory cycle. J Cell Biol. 1969 Jun;41(3):753–773. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Benedetti EL, Emmelot P. Hexagonal array of subunits in tight junctions separated from isolated rat liver plasma membranes. J Cell Biol. 1968 Jul;38(1):15–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berry MN, Friend DS. High-yield preparation of isolated rat liver parenchymal cells: a biochemical and fine structural study. J Cell Biol. 1969 Dec;43(3):506–520. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Branton D. Fracture faces of frozen membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1966 May;55(5):1048–1056. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • BRIGHTMAN MW, PALAY SL. THE FINE STRUCTURE OF EPENDYMA IN THE BRAIN OF THE RAT. J Cell Biol. 1963 Nov;19:415–439. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brightman MW, Reese TS. Junctions between intimately apposed cell membranes in the vertebrate brain. J Cell Biol. 1969 Mar;40(3):648–677. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brunser O, Luft HJ. Fine structure of the apex of absorptive cell from rat small intestine. J Ultrastruct Res. 1970 May;31(3):291–311. [PubMed]
  • Ceriani R, Pitelka DR, Bern HA, Colley VB. Ultrastructure of rat mammary-gland anlagen in vivo and after culture with hormones. J Exp Zool. 1970 May;174(1):79–99. [PubMed]
  • Chalcroft JP, Bullivant S. An interpretation of liver cell membrane and junction structure based on observation of freeze-fracture replicas of both sides of the fracture. J Cell Biol. 1970 Oct;47(1):49–60. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • EHRENBRAND F. BEITRAEGE ZUR ORTHOLOGIE DER LACTIERENDEN MILCHDRUESE. (LICHTMIKROSKOPISCHE, ELEKTRONENOPTISCHE, POLARISATIONS- UND FLUORESZENZMIKROSKOPISCHE SOWIE CHEMOHISTOLOGISCHE UNTERSUCHUNGEN). I. Acta Histochem. 1964 May 30;18:1–CONTD. [PubMed]
  • FARQUHAR MG, PALADE GE. Junctional complexes in various epithelia. J Cell Biol. 1963 May;17:375–412. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fekete E. A comparative morphological study of the mammary gland in a high and a low tumor strain of mice. Am J Pathol. 1938 Sep;14(5):557–578.5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Friend DS, Gilula NB. Variations in tight and gap junctions in mammalian tissues. J Cell Biol. 1972 Jun;53(3):758–776. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gilula NB, Reeves OR, Steinbach A. Metabolic coupling, ionic coupling and cell contacts. Nature. 1972 Feb 4;235(5336):262–265. [PubMed]
  • Goodenough DA, Revel JP. A fine structural analysis of intercellular junctions in the mouse liver. J Cell Biol. 1970 May;45(2):272–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helminen HJ, Ericsson JL. Studies on mammary gland involution. I. On the ultrastructure of the lactating mammary gland. J Ultrastruct Res. 1968 Nov;25(3):193–213. [PubMed]
  • Karnovsky MJ. The ultrastructural basis of capillary permeability studied with peroxidase as a tracer. J Cell Biol. 1967 Oct;35(1):213–236. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kurosumi K, Kobayashi Y, Baba N. The fine structure of mammary glands of lactating rats, with special reference to the apocrine secretion. Exp Cell Res. 1968 Apr;50(1):177–192. [PubMed]
  • LINZELL JL. Some observations on the contractile tissue of the mammary glands. J Physiol. 1955 Nov 28;130(2):257–267. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LINZELL JL. Physiology of the mammary glands. Physiol Rev. 1959 Jul;39(3):534–576. [PubMed]
  • Linzell JL, Peaker M. Mechanism of milk secretion. Physiol Rev. 1971 Jul;51(3):564–597. [PubMed]
  • Linzell JL, Peaker M. Intracellular concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride in the lactating mammary gland and their relation to the secretory mechanism. J Physiol. 1971 Aug;216(3):683–700. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linzell JL, Peaker M. The permeability of mammary ducts. J Physiol. 1971 Aug;216(3):701–716. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Linzell JL, Peaker M. The effects of oxytocin and milk removal on milk secretion in the goat. J Physiol. 1971 Aug;216(3):717–734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • LUFT JH. Improvements in epoxy resin embedding methods. J Biophys Biochem Cytol. 1961 Feb;9:409–414. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Martin JH, Lynn JA, Nickey WM. A rapid polychrome stain for epoxy-embedded tissue. Am J Clin Pathol. 1966 Aug;46(2):250–251. [PubMed]
  • Martínez-Palomo A. Ultrastructural modifications of intercellular junctions in some epithelial tumors. Lab Invest. 1970 Jun;22(6):605–614. [PubMed]
  • McNutt NS, Weinstein RS. The ultrastructure of the nexus. A correlated thin-section and freeze-cleave study. J Cell Biol. 1970 Dec;47(3):666–688. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mills ES, Topper YJ. Some ultrastructural effects of insulin, hydrocortisone, and prolactin on mammary gland explants. J Cell Biol. 1970 Feb;44(2):310–328. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moor H. Freeze-etching. Int Rev Cytol. 1969;25:391–412. [PubMed]
  • Murad TM. Ultrastructural study of rat mammary gland during pregnancy. Anat Rec. 1970 May;167(1):17–35. [PubMed]
  • Nemanic MK, Pitelka DR. A scanning electron microscope study of the lactating mammary gland. J Cell Biol. 1971 Feb;48(2):410–415. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Orci L, Matter A, Rouiller C. A comparative study of freeze-etch replicas and thin sections of rat liver. J Ultrastruct Res. 1971 Apr;35(1):1–19. [PubMed]
  • Overton J. The fat of desmosomes in trypsinized tissue. J Exp Zool. 1968 Jun;168(2):203–214. [PubMed]
  • Pinto da Silva P. Translational mobility of the membrane intercalated particles of human erythrocyte ghosts. pH-dependent, reversible aggregation. J Cell Biol. 1972 Jun;53(3):777–787. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pinto da Silva P, Branton D. Membrane splitting in freeze-ethching. Covalently bound ferritin as a membrane marker. J Cell Biol. 1970 Jun;45(3):598–605. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pitelka DR, Kerkof PR, Gagné HT, Smith S, Abraham S. Characteristics of cells dissociated from mouse mammary glands. I. Method of separation and morphology of parenchymal cells from lactating glands. Exp Cell Res. 1969 Sep;57(1):43–62. [PubMed]
  • Revel JP, Yee AG, Hudspeth AJ. Gap junctions between electrotonically coupled cells in tissue culture and in brown fat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Dec;68(12):2924–2927. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • REYNOLDS ES. The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol. 1963 Apr;17:208–212. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richards RC, Benson GK. Ultrastructural changes accompanying involution of the mammary gland in the albino rat. J Endocrinol. 1971 Sep;51(1):127–135. [PubMed]
  • RICHARDSON KC. Contractile tissues in the mammary gland, with special reference to myoepithelium in the goat. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1949 May 9;136(882):30–45. [PubMed]
  • RICHARDSON KC, JARETT L, FINKE EH. Embedding in epoxy resins for ultrathin sectioning in electron microscopy. Stain Technol. 1960 Nov;35:313–323. [PubMed]
  • Sekhri KK, Pitelka DR, DeOme KB. Studies of mouse mammary glands. I. Cytomorphology of the normal mammary gland. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1967 Sep;39(3):459–490. [PubMed]
  • Staehelin LA, Mukherjee TM, Williams AW. Freeze-etch appearance of the tight junctions in the epithelium of small and large intestine of mice. Protoplasma. 1969;67(2):165–184. [PubMed]
  • Tamarin A. Submaxillary gland recovery from obstruction. I. Overall changes and electron microscopic alterations of granular duct cells. J Ultrastruct Res. 1971 Feb;34(3):276–287. [PubMed]
  • Tillack TW, Marchesi VT. Demonstration of the outer surface of freeze-etched red blood cell membranes. J Cell Biol. 1970 Jun;45(3):649–653. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Topper YJ. Multiple hormone interactions in the development of mammary gland in vitro. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1970;26:287–308. [PubMed]
  • Traurig HH. A radioautographic study of cell proliferation in the mammary gland of the pregnant mouse. Anat Rec. 1967 Oct;159(2):239–247. [PubMed]

Articles from The Journal of Cell Biology are provided here courtesy of The Rockefeller University Press

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...