• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Jan 1991; 173(2): 549–558.
PMCID: PMC207045

Dual regulation of the ugp operon by phosphate and carbon starvation at two interspaced promoters.

Abstract

The ugp operon of Escherichia coli includes genes involved in the uptake of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate and glycerophosphoryl diesters and belongs to the pho regulon which is induced by phosphate limitation. This operon has two transcriptional initiation sites, as determined by S1 nuclease mapping of the in vivo transcripts. The downstream promoter has multiple copies of the pho box, the consensus sequence shared by the pho promoters; the upstream promoter has a consensus sequence for the promoters regulated by cyclic AMP and its receptor protein, CRP. PhoB protein, which is the transcriptional activator for the pho regulon, protected the regulatory region with the pho boxes in DNase I footprinting experiments and activated transcription from the downstream promoter in vitro. Studies with transcriptional fusions between ugp and a promoterless gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase show that the upstream promoter is induced by carbon starvation in a manner that required the cya and crp genes. PhoB protein may act as a repressor for this upstream promoter, which also overlaps the upstream third pho box. The downstream promoter was induced by phosphate starvation and requires the PhoB protein for its activation as do the other pho regulon promoters. These results suggest that the two promoters function alternately in responding to phosphate or carbon starvation, thus providing the cell with a means to adapt to these physiological stresses.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.6M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Aiba H, Adhya S, de Crombrugghe B. Evidence for two functional gal promoters in intact Escherichia coli cells. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 25;256(22):11905–11910. [PubMed]
  • Amemura M, Shinagawa H, Makino K, Otsuji N, Nakata A. Cloning of and complementation tests with alkaline phosphatase regulatory genes (phoS and phoT) of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Nov;152(2):692–701. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Berg OG, von Hippel PH. Selection of DNA binding sites by regulatory proteins. II. The binding specificity of cyclic AMP receptor protein to recognition sites. J Mol Biol. 1988 Apr 20;200(4):709–723. [PubMed]
  • Biville F, Blazy B, Guiso N. Transcription termination factor rho of Escherichia coli K-12: some regulatory aspects of its expression and activity. Biochimie. 1983 Jun;65(6):339–344. [PubMed]
  • Brosius J. Plasmid vectors for the selection of promoters. Gene. 1984 Feb;27(2):151–160. [PubMed]
  • Brzoska P, Boos W. Characteristics of a ugp-encoded and phoB-dependent glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase which is physically dependent on the ugp transport system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988 Sep;170(9):4125–4135. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Craig NL, Nash HA. E. coli integration host factor binds to specific sites in DNA. Cell. 1984 Dec;39(3 Pt 2):707–716. [PubMed]
  • Hong GF. A systemic DNA sequencing strategy. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jul 5;158(3):539–549. [PubMed]
  • Johnson AD, Meyer BJ, Ptashne M. Interactions between DNA-bound repressors govern regulation by the lambda phage repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Oct;76(10):5061–5065. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kasahara M, Makino K, Amemura M, Nakata A. Nucleotide sequence of the ugpQ gene encoding glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase of Escherichia coli K-12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Apr 11;17(7):2854–2854. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kimura S, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: characterization of the promoter of the pstS gene. Mol Gen Genet. 1989 Feb;215(3):374–380. [PubMed]
  • Kohara Y, Akiyama K, Isono K. The physical map of the whole E. coli chromosome: application of a new strategy for rapid analysis and sorting of a large genomic library. Cell. 1987 Jul 31;50(3):495–508. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kawamoto T, Yamada M, Nakata A. Signal transduction in the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli involves phosphotransfer between PhoR and PhoB proteins. J Mol Biol. 1989 Dec 5;210(3):551–559. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Kimura S, Nakata A, Ishihama A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli. Activation of pstS transcription by PhoB protein in vitro. J Mol Biol. 1988 Sep 5;203(1):85–95. [PubMed]
  • Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Cloning and characterization of the alkaline phosphatase positive regulatory gene (phoM) of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;195(3):381–390. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Messing J, Crea R, Seeburg PH. A system for shotgun DNA sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 1981 Jan 24;9(2):309–321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morita T, Shigesada K, Kimizuka F, Aiba H. Regulatory effect of a synthetic CRP recognition sequence placed downstream of a promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 Aug 11;16(15):7315–7332. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Overduin P, Boos W, Tommassen J. Nucleotide sequence of the ugp genes of Escherichia coli K-12: homology to the maltose system. Mol Microbiol. 1988 Nov;2(6):767–775. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schweizer H, Boos W. Characterization of the ugp region containing the genes for the phoB dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet. 1984;197(1):161–168. [PubMed]
  • Schweizer H, Grussenmeyer T, Boos W. Mapping of two ugp genes coding for the pho regulon-dependent sn-glycerol-3-phosphate transport system of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Jun;150(3):1164–1171. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shaw WV. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase from chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 1975;43:737–755. [PubMed]
  • Vieira J, Messing J. The pUC plasmids, an M13mp7-derived system for insertion mutagenesis and sequencing with synthetic universal primers. Gene. 1982 Oct;19(3):259–268. [PubMed]
  • Wanner BL, McSharry R. Phosphate-controlled gene expression in Escherichia coli K12 using Mudl-directed lacZ fusions. J Mol Biol. 1982 Jul 5;158(3):347–363. [PubMed]
  • Yamada M, Makino K, Amemura M, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: analysis of mutant phoB and phoR genes causing different phenotypes. J Bacteriol. 1989 Oct;171(10):5601–5606. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yamada M, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Nakata A. Regulation of the phosphate regulon of Escherichia coli: properties of phoR deletion mutants and subcellular localization of PhoR protein. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Feb;220(3):366–372. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats: