Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1992 Jul; 174(14): 4647–4656.
PMCID: PMC206260

Regulation of transcription of the cell division gene ftsA during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis.


Three distinct 5' ends of ftsA mRNA were identified by S1 mapping and by primer extension analysis. These are thought to represent three transcription start sites. The transcripts from the downstream and upstream sites were detected throughout growth. The transcript from the middle site was not detected during exponential growth but was detected within 30 min of the start of sporulation, when it was the predominant transcript. Insertion of a cat cassette in the middle promoter, ftsAp2 (p2), did not affect vegetative growth but prevented postexponential symmetrical division and spore formation. Transcription from p2 was dependent on RNA polymerase containing sigma H, and promoter p2 resembled the consensus sigma H promoter. Transcription from p2 did not require expression of the spo0A, spo0B, spo0E, spo0F, or spo0K loci. Northern (RNA) blot analysis indicated that ftsA is cotranscribed with the adjacent ftsZ gene. Multiple promoters provide a mechanism by which essential vegetative genes can be subjected to sporulation control independent of control during vegetative growth. In the case of ftsA,Z, the promoters provide a mechanism to permit septum formation in conditions of nutrient depletion that might be expected to shut down the vegetative division machinery.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (3.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Albano M, Hahn J, Dubnau D. Expression of competence genes in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jul;169(7):3110–3117. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Aldea M, Garrido T, Pla J, Vicente M. Division genes in Escherichia coli are expressed coordinately to cell septum requirements by gearbox promoters. EMBO J. 1990 Nov;9(11):3787–3794. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beall B, Lowe M, Lutkenhaus J. Cloning and characterization of Bacillus subtilis homologs of Escherichia coli cell division genes ftsZ and ftsA. J Bacteriol. 1988 Oct;170(10):4855–4864. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beall B, Lutkenhaus J. Nucleotide sequence and insertional inactivation of a Bacillus subtilis gene that affects cell division, sporulation, and temperature sensitivity. J Bacteriol. 1989 Dec;171(12):6821–6834. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Beall B, Lutkenhaus J. FtsZ in Bacillus subtilis is required for vegetative septation and for asymmetric septation during sporulation. Genes Dev. 1991 Mar;5(3):447–455. [PubMed]
  • Bernander R, Nordström K. Chromosome replication does not trigger cell division in E. coli. Cell. 1990 Feb 9;60(3):365–374. [PubMed]
  • Bi E, Lutkenhaus J. FtsZ regulates frequency of cell division in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2765–2768. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bouloc P, Jaffé A, D'Ari R. The Escherichia coli lov gene product connects peptidoglycan synthesis, ribosomes and growth rate. EMBO J. 1989 Jan;8(1):317–323. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Burbulys D, Trach KA, Hoch JA. Initiation of sporulation in B. subtilis is controlled by a multicomponent phosphorelay. Cell. 1991 Feb 8;64(3):545–552. [PubMed]
  • Callister H, Wake RG. Homogeneity in Bacillus subtilis spore DNA content. J Mol Biol. 1976 Apr 5;102(2):367–371. [PubMed]
  • Carter HL, 3rd, Wang LF, Doi RH, Moran CP., Jr rpoD operon promoter used by sigma H-RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1617–1621. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Coote JG. Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Genetic analysis of oligosporogenous mutants. J Gen Microbiol. 1972 Jun;71(1):17–27. [PubMed]
  • D'Ari R, Maguin E, Bouloc P, Jaffé A, Robin A, Liébart JC, Joseleau-Petit D. Aspects of cell cycle regulation. Res Microbiol. 1990 Jan;141(1):9–16. [PubMed]
  • Dawes IW, Kay D, Mandelstam J. Determining effect of growth medium on the shape and position of daughter chromosomes and on sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Nature. 1971 Apr 30;230(5296):567–569. [PubMed]
  • Dubnau E, Weir J, Nair G, Carter L, 3rd, Moran C, Jr, Smith I. Bacillus sporulation gene spo0H codes for sigma 30 (sigma H). J Bacteriol. 1988 Mar;170(3):1054–1062. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaal T, Gourse RL. Guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-diphosphate is not required for growth rate-dependent control of rRNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jul;87(14):5533–5537. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harry EJ, Wake RG. Cloning and expression of a Bacillus subtilis division initiation gene for which a homolog has not been identified in another organism. J Bacteriol. 1989 Dec;171(12):6835–6839. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Healy J, Weir J, Smith I, Losick R. Post-transcriptional control of a sporulation regulatory gene encoding transcription factor sigma H in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Feb;5(2):477–487. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Chamberlin MJ. Structure and function of bacterial sigma factors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988;57:839–872. [PubMed]
  • Losick R, Youngman P, Piggot PJ. Genetics of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Annu Rev Genet. 1986;20:625–669. [PubMed]
  • Mendelson NH. Bacterial growth and division: genes, structures, forces, and clocks. Microbiol Rev. 1982 Sep;46(3):341–375. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nordström K, Bernander R, Dasgupta S. The Escherichia coli cell cycle: one cycle or multiple independent processes that are co-ordinated? Mol Microbiol. 1991 Apr;5(4):769–774. [PubMed]
  • Ochi K, Kandala JC, Freese E. Initiation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation by the stringent response to partial amino acid deprivation. J Biol Chem. 1981 Jul 10;256(13):6866–6875. [PubMed]
  • Piggot PJ, Chak KF, Bugaichuk UD. Isolation and characterization of a clone of the spoVE locus of Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Jul;132(7):1875–1881. [PubMed]
  • Piggot PJ, Curtis CA. Analysis of the regulation of gene expression during Bacillus subtilis sporulation by manipulation of the copy number of spo-lacZ fusions. J Bacteriol. 1987 Mar;169(3):1260–1266. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Piggot PJ, Curtis CA, de Lencastre H. Use of integrational plasmid vectors to demonstrate the polycistronic nature of a transcriptional unit (spoIIA) required for sporulation of Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1984 Aug;130(8):2123–2136. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shimotsu H, Henner DJ. Construction of a single-copy integration vector and its use in analysis of regulation of the trp operon of Bacillus subtilis. Gene. 1986;43(1-2):85–94. [PubMed]
  • Sloma A, Rufo GA, Jr, Rudolph CF, Sullivan BJ, Theriault KA, Pero J. Bacillopeptidase F of Bacillus subtilis: purification of the protein and cloning of the gene. J Bacteriol. 1990 Mar;172(3):1470–1477. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stragier P, Losick R. Cascades of sigma factors revisited. Mol Microbiol. 1990 Nov;4(11):1801–1806. [PubMed]
  • Sun DX, Cabrera-Martinez RM, Setlow P. Control of transcription of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIIG gene, which codes for the forespore-specific transcription factor sigma G. J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(9):2977–2984. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tatti KM, Carter HL, 3rd, Moir A, Moran CP., Jr Sigma H-directed transcription of citG in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):5928–5932. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wu JJ, Howard MG, Piggot PJ. Regulation of transcription of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIA locus. J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):692–698. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wu XC, Nathoo S, Pang AS, Carne T, Wong SL. Cloning, genetic organization, and characterization of a structural gene encoding bacillopeptidase F from Bacillus subtilis. J Biol Chem. 1990 Apr 25;265(12):6845–6850. [PubMed]
  • Yi QM, Rockenbach S, Ward JE, Jr, Lutkenhaus J. Structure and expression of the cell division genes ftsQ, ftsA and ftsZ. J Mol Biol. 1985 Aug 5;184(3):399–412. [PubMed]
  • Zuber P, Losick R. Role of AbrB in Spo0A- and Spo0B-dependent utilization of a sporulation promoter in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1987 May;169(5):2223–2230. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Gene
    Gene records that cite the current articles. Citations in Gene are added manually by NCBI or imported from outside public resources.
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) Profiles of molecular abundance data. The current articles are references on the Gene record associated with the GEO profile.
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Primary database (GenBank) nucleotide records reported in the current articles as well as Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) that include the articles as references.
  • Protein
    Protein translation features of primary database (GenBank) nucleotide records reported in the current articles as well as Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) that include the articles as references.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...