• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Jun 1992; 174(11): 3577–3586.
PMCID: PMC206044

Identification of a gene, rgg, which regulates expression of glucosyltransferase and influences the Spp phenotype of Streptococcus gordonii Challis.

Abstract

Streptococcus gordonii Challis was previously shown to give rise to phase variants expressing high (Spp+) or low (Spp-) levels of extracellular glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity. Here, shotgun cloning of an S. gordonii Spp+ chromosomal digest resulted in a chimeric plasmid (pAM5010) able to complement the Spp- phenotype. In addition, introduction of pAM5010 into an Spp+ strain resulted in a 10-fold increase in GTF expression. Deletion analysis of pAM5010 identified a 1.2-kb DNA segment which exhibited the same functional properties as pAM5010. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed a gene approximately 1 kb in size. The gene was designated rgg. Disruption of the chromosomal rgg gene open reading frame in an Spp+ strain resulted in strain DS512, which displayed an Spp(-)-like phenotype and had 3% of wild-type GTF activity. A plasmid containing the rgg gene was able to complement the DS512 phenotype and significantly increase GTF expression above wild-type levels. Sequence analysis and other data showed that the S. gordonii GTF determinant, designated gtfG, is located 66 bp downstream of the rgg gene. The sequence also revealed interesting inverted repeats which may play a role in the regulation of gtfG. We conclude that rgg positively regulates the expression of GTF and influences expression of the Spp phenotype.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abo H, Matsumura T, Kodama T, Ohta H, Fukui K, Kato K, Kagawa H. Peptide sequences for sucrose splitting and glucan binding within Streptococcus sobrinus glucosyltransferase (water-insoluble glucan synthetase). J Bacteriol. 1991 Feb;173(3):989–996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bayliss R, Clarke C, Oakley CM, Somerville W, Whitfield AG, Young SE. The microbiology and pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Br Heart J. 1983 Dec;50(6):513–519. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bayliss R, Clarke C, Oakley C, Somerville W, Whitfield AG. The teeth and infective endocarditis. Br Heart J. 1983 Dec;50(6):506–512. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brendel V, Hamm GH, Trifonov EN. Terminators of transcription with RNA polymerase from Escherichia coli: what they look like and how to find them. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 1986 Feb;3(4):705–723. [PubMed]
  • Buchan RA, Jenkinson HF. Glucosyltransferase production by Streptococcus sanguis Challis and comparison with other oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1990 Apr;5(2):63–71. [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB, Yagi Y, Dunny GM, Schultz SK. Characterization of three plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid molecules in a strain of Streptococcus faecalis: identification of a plasmid determining erythromycin resistance. J Bacteriol. 1974 Jan;117(1):283–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Collado-Vides J, Magasanik B, Gralla JD. Control site location and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1991 Sep;55(3):371–394. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ehrenfeld EE, Clewell DB. Transfer functions of the Streptococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1: organization of plasmid DNA encoding response to sex pheromone. J Bacteriol. 1987 Aug;169(8):3473–3481. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ferretti JJ, Gilpin ML, Russell RR. Nucleotide sequence of a glucosyltransferase gene from Streptococcus sobrinus MFe28. J Bacteriol. 1987 Sep;169(9):4271–4278. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Frandsen EV, Pedrazzoli V, Kilian M. Ecology of viridans streptococci in the oral cavity and pharynx. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 1991 Jun;6(3):129–133. [PubMed]
  • Gilmore KS, Russell RR, Ferretti JJ. Analysis of the Streptococcus downei gtfS gene, which specifies a glucosyltransferase that synthesizes soluble glucans. Infect Immun. 1990 Aug;58(8):2452–2458. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gold L. Posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988;57:199–233. [PubMed]
  • Haisman RJ, Jenkinson HF. Mutants of Streptococcus gordonii Challis over-producing glucosyltransferase. J Gen Microbiol. 1991 Mar;137(3):483–489. [PubMed]
  • Hamada S, Slade HD. Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. Microbiol Rev. 1980 Jun;44(2):331–384. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamada S, Torii M, Tsuchitani Y, Kotani S. Isolation and immunobiological classification of Streptococcus sanguis from human tooth surfaces. J Clin Microbiol. 1980 Aug;12(2):243–249. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Harrison SC, Aggarwal AK. DNA recognition by proteins with the helix-turn-helix motif. Annu Rev Biochem. 1990;59:933–969. [PubMed]
  • Honda O, Kato C, Kuramitsu HK. Nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans gtfD gene encoding the glucosyltransferase-S enzyme. J Gen Microbiol. 1990 Oct;136(10):2099–2105. [PubMed]
  • Hudson MC, Curtiss R., 3rd Regulation of expression of Streptococcus mutans genes important to virulence. Infect Immun. 1990 Feb;58(2):464–470. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jacques NA, Jacques VL, Wolf AC, Wittenberger CL. Does an increase in membrane unsaturated fatty acids account for Tween 80 stimulation of glucosyltransferase secretion by Streptococcus salivarius? J Gen Microbiol. 1985 Jan;131(1):67–72. [PubMed]
  • Kuramitsu HK. Characterization of extracellular glucosyltransferase activity of Steptococcus mutans. Infect Immun. 1975 Oct;12(4):738–749. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kyte J, Doolittle RF. A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein. J Mol Biol. 1982 May 5;157(1):105–132. [PubMed]
  • Lawson JW, Gooder H. Growth and development of competence in the group H streptococci. J Bacteriol. 1970 Jun;102(3):820–825. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Macdonald PM, Kutter E, Mosig G. Regulation of a bacteriophage T4 late gene, soc, which maps in an early region. Genetics. 1984 Jan;106(1):17–27. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Macrina FL, Evans RP, Tobian JA, Hartley DL, Clewell DB, Jones KR. Novel shuttle plasmid vehicles for Escherichia-Streptococcus transgeneric cloning. Gene. 1983 Nov;25(1):145–150. [PubMed]
  • Mayer RM. Dextransucrase: a glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus sanguis. Methods Enzymol. 1987;138:649–661. [PubMed]
  • McPheeters DS, Christensen A, Young ET, Stormo G, Gold L. Translational regulation of expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jul 25;14(14):5813–5826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Moran CP, Jr, Lang N, LeGrice SF, Lee G, Stephens M, Sonenshein AL, Pero J, Losick R. Nucleotide sequences that signal the initiation of transcription and translation in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet. 1982;186(3):339–346. [PubMed]
  • Murphy GL, Connell TD, Barritt DS, Koomey M, Cannon JG. Phase variation of gonococcal protein II: regulation of gene expression by slipped-strand mispairing of a repetitive DNA sequence. Cell. 1989 Feb 24;56(4):539–547. [PubMed]
  • Nyvad B, Kilian M. Comparison of the initial streptococcal microflora on dental enamel in caries-active and in caries-inactive individuals. Caries Res. 1990;24(4):267–272. [PubMed]
  • Oliver D. Protein secretion in Escherichia coli. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1985;39:615–648. [PubMed]
  • Parker MT, Ball LC. Streptococci and aerococci associated with systemic infection in man. J Med Microbiol. 1976 Aug;9(3):275–302. [PubMed]
  • Ramirez-Ronda CH. Adherence of glucan-positive and glucan-negative streptococcal strains to normal and damaged heart valves. J Clin Invest. 1978 Oct;62(4):805–814. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg M, Court D. Regulatory sequences involved in the promotion and termination of RNA transcription. Annu Rev Genet. 1979;13:319–353. [PubMed]
  • Salser W. Globin mRNA sequences: analysis of base pairing and evolutionary implications. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1978;42(Pt 2):985–1002. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scheld WM, Valone JA, Sande MA. Bacterial adherence in the pathogenesis of endocarditis. Interaction of bacterial dextran, platelets, and fibrin. J Clin Invest. 1978 May;61(5):1394–1404. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shine J, Dalgarno L. The 3'-terminal sequence of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA: complementarity to nonsense triplets and ribosome binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Apr;71(4):1342–1346. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shiroza T, Ueda S, Kuramitsu HK. Sequence analysis of the gtfB gene from Streptococcus mutans. J Bacteriol. 1987 Sep;169(9):4263–4270. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Stibitz S, Aaronson W, Monack D, Falkow S. Phase variation in Bordetella pertussis by frameshift mutation in a gene for a novel two-component system. Nature. 1989 Mar 16;338(6212):266–269. [PubMed]
  • Su YA, Sulavik MC, He P, Makinen KK, Makinen PL, Fiedler S, Wirth R, Clewell DB. Nucleotide sequence of the gelatinase gene (gelE) from Enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens. Infect Immun. 1991 Jan;59(1):415–420. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tardif G, Sulavik MC, Jones GW, Clewell DB. Spontaneous switching of the sucrose-promoted colony phenotype in Streptococcus sanguis. Infect Immun. 1989 Dec;57(12):3945–3948. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ueda S, Shiroza T, Kuramitsu HK. Sequence analysis of the gtfC gene from Streptococcus mutans GS-5. Gene. 1988 Sep 15;69(1):101–109. [PubMed]
  • Vickerman MM, Clewell DB, Jones GW. Sucrose-promoted accumulation of growing glucosyltransferase variants of Streptococcus gordonii on hydroxyapatite surfaces. Infect Immun. 1991 Oct;59(10):3523–3530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • von Heijne G. Patterns of amino acids near signal-sequence cleavage sites. Eur J Biochem. 1983 Jun 1;133(1):17–21. [PubMed]
  • Wenham DG, Hennessey TD, Cole JA. Regulation of glucosyl- and fructosyltransferase synthesis by continuous cultures of Streptococcus mutans. J Gen Microbiol. 1979 Sep;114(1):117–124. [PubMed]
  • Zacharius RM, Zell TE, Morrison JH, Woodlock JJ. Glycoprotein staining following electrophoresis on acrylamide gels. Anal Biochem. 1969 Jul;30(1):148–152. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links