• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Apr 1994; 176(8): 2458–2462.
PMCID: PMC205374

Induction of surfactin production in Bacillus subtilis by gsp, a gene located upstream of the gramicidin S operon in Bacillus brevis.


The deduced amino acid sequence of the gsp gene, located upstream of the 5' end of the gramicidin S operon (grs operon) in Bacillus brevis, showed a high degree of similarity to the sfp gene product, which is located downstream of the srfA operon in B. subtilis. The gsp gene complemented in trans a defect in the sfp gene (sfpO) and promoted production of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin. The functional homology of Gsp and Sfp and the sequence similarity of these two proteins to EntD suggest that the three proteins represent a new class of proteins involved in peptide secretion, in support of a hypothesis published previously (T. H. Grossman, M. Tuckman, S. Ellestad, and M. S. Osburne, J. Bacteriol. 175:6203-6211, 1993).

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (971K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arima K, Kakinuma A, Tamura G. Surfactin, a crystalline peptidelipid surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis: isolation, characterization and its inhibition of fibrin clot formation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1968 May 10;31(3):488–494. [PubMed]
  • Borchert S, Patil SS, Màrahiel MA. Identification of putative multifunctional peptide synthetase genes using highly conserved oligonucleotide sequences derived from known synthetases. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992 Apr 15;71(2):175–180. [PubMed]
  • Burnette WN. "Western blotting": electrophoretic transfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gels to unmodified nitrocellulose and radiographic detection with antibody and radioiodinated protein A. Anal Biochem. 1981 Apr;112(2):195–203. [PubMed]
  • Cosmina P, Rodriguez F, de Ferra F, Grandi G, Perego M, Venema G, van Sinderen D. Sequence and analysis of the genetic locus responsible for surfactin synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(5):821–831. [PubMed]
  • D'Souza C, Nakano MM, Corbell N, Zuber P. Amino-acylation site mutations in amino acid-activating domains of surfactin synthetase: effects on surfactin production and competence development in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1993 Jun;175(11):3502–3510. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fleming TP, Nahlik MS, McIntosh MA. Regulation of enterobactin iron transport in Escherichia coli: characterization of ent::Mu d(Apr lac) operon fusions. J Bacteriol. 1983 Dec;156(3):1171–1177. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fuma S, Fujishima Y, Corbell N, D'Souza C, Nakano MM, Zuber P, Yamane K. Nucleotide sequence of 5' portion of srfA that contains the region required for competence establishment in Bacillus subtilus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993 Jan 11;21(1):93–97. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Grossman TH, Tuckman M, Ellestad S, Osburne MS. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis: relationship between B. subtilis sfpo and Escherichia coli entD genes. J Bacteriol. 1993 Oct;175(19):6203–6211. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hager DA, Burgess RR. Elution of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, removal of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and renaturation of enzymatic activity: results with sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, wheat germ DNA topoisomerase, and other enzymes. Anal Biochem. 1980 Nov 15;109(1):76–86. [PubMed]
  • Klein C, Kaletta C, Schnell N, Entian KD. Analysis of genes involved in biosynthesis of the lantibiotic subtilin. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1992 Jan;58(1):132–142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krätzschmar J, Krause M, Marahiel MA. Gramicidin S biosynthesis operon containing the structural genes grsA and grsB has an open reading frame encoding a protein homologous to fatty acid thioesterases. J Bacteriol. 1989 Oct;171(10):5422–5429. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krause M, Marahiel MA. Organization of the biosynthesis genes for the peptide antibiotic gramicidin S. J Bacteriol. 1988 Oct;170(10):4669–4674. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970 Aug 15;227(5259):680–685. [PubMed]
  • Losick R, Youngman P, Piggot PJ. Genetics of endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis. Annu Rev Genet. 1986;20:625–669. [PubMed]
  • Marahiel MA. Multidomain enzymes involved in peptide synthesis. FEBS Lett. 1992 Jul 27;307(1):40–43. [PubMed]
  • Nakano MM, Corbell N, Besson J, Zuber P. Isolation and characterization of sfp: a gene that functions in the production of the lipopeptide biosurfactant, surfactin, in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Gen Genet. 1992 Mar;232(2):313–321. [PubMed]
  • Nakano MM, Magnuson R, Myers A, Curry J, Grossman AD, Zuber P. srfA is an operon required for surfactin production, competence development, and efficient sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1991 Mar;173(5):1770–1778. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nakano MM, Marahiel MA, Zuber P. Identification of a genetic locus required for biosynthesis of the lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1988 Dec;170(12):5662–5668. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tabor S, Richardson CC. A bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system for controlled exclusive expression of specific genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Feb;82(4):1074–1078. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Turgay K, Krause M, Marahiel MA. Four homologous domains in the primary structure of GrsB are related to domains in a superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Feb;6(4):529–546. [PubMed]
  • van Sinderen D, Galli G, Cosmina P, de Ferra F, Withoff S, Venema G, Grandi G. Characterization of the srfA locus of Bacillus subtilis: only the valine-activating domain of srfA is involved in the establishment of genetic competence. Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(5):833–841. [PubMed]
  • Willimsky G, Bang H, Fischer G, Marahiel MA. Characterization of cspB, a Bacillus subtilis inducible cold shock gene affecting cell viability at low temperatures. J Bacteriol. 1992 Oct;174(20):6326–6335. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...