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Br J Cancer. Jun 1969; 23(2): 313–328.
PMCID: PMC2008269

The two "hit" and multiple "hit" theories of carcinogenesis.

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Selected References

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  • ARMITAGE P, DOLL R. A two-stage theory of carcinogenesis in relation to the age distribution of human cancer. Br J Cancer. 1957 Jun;11(2):161–169. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
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  • CASE RA. Cohort analysis of cancer mortality in England and Wales; 1911-1954 by site and sex. Br J Prev Soc Med. 1956 Oct;10(4):172–199. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • FISHER JC. Multiple-mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Nature. 1958 Mar 1;181(4609):651–652. [PubMed]
  • LOCKHART-MUMMERY HE, DUKES CE. The surgical treatment of malignant rectal polyps. Lancet. 1952 Oct 18;2(6738):751–755. [PubMed]
  • NAIRN RC, RICHMOND HG, McENTEGART MG, FOTHERGILL JE. Immunological differences between normal and malignant cells. Br Med J. 1960 Nov 5;2(5209):1335–1340. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • STOCKS P. A study of the age curve for cancer of the stomach in connection with a theory of the cancer producing mechanism. Br J Cancer. 1953 Dec;7(4):407–417. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • TEE DE, WANG M, WATKINS J. ANTIGENIC PROPERTIES OF HUMAN TUMOURS. Nature. 1964 Nov 28;204:897–898. [PubMed]

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