Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Dec 1994; 176(23): 7345–7351.
PMCID: PMC197124

The FlhD/FlhC complex, a transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli flagellar class II operons.

Abstract

The Escherichia coli flhD operon encodes two genes, flhD and flhC. Both gene products were overproduced and purified. The purified proteins formed a complex consisting of two FlhD and two FlhC molecules. Mobility shift assays showed that the FlhD/FlhC complex had a DNA-binding activity and bound to the upstream regions of fliA, flhB, and fliL operons (class II), which are under direct control of the flhD operon. DNase I footprinting analyses of FlhD/FlhC binding to the three class II promoter regions revealed protection of a 48-bp region of the fliA operon between positions -41 to -88, a 50-bp region of the flhB operon between positions -28 to -77, and a 48-bp region of the fliL operon between positions -29 to -76. In vitro transcription experiments demonstrated that the FlhD/FlhC complex is a transcriptional activator required for the transcription of the three class II operons examined in vitro.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.8M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Arnosti DN. Regulation of Escherichia coli sigma F RNA polymerase by flhD and flhC flagellar regulatory genes. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jul;172(7):4106–4108. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Arnosti DN, Chamberlin MJ. Secondary sigma factor controls transcription of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Feb;86(3):830–834. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartlett DH, Frantz BB, Matsumura P. Flagellar transcriptional activators FlbB and FlaI: gene sequences and 5' consensus sequences of operons under FlbB and FlaI control. J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1575–1581. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Casadaban MJ. Transposition and fusion of the lac genes to selected promoters in Escherichia coli using bacteriophage lambda and Mu. J Mol Biol. 1976 Jul 5;104(3):541–555. [PubMed]
  • Collado-Vides J, Magasanik B, Gralla JD. Control site location and transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 1991 Sep;55(3):371–394. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dodd IB, Egan JB. Improved detection of helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motifs in protein sequences. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Sep 11;18(17):5019–5026. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD. Alternative sigma factors and the regulation of flagellar gene expression. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Dec;5(12):2875–2882. [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Chamberlin MJ. DNA sequence analysis suggests that expression of flagellar and chemotaxis genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is controlled by an alternative sigma factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Sep;84(18):6422–6424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Helmann JD, Chamberlin MJ. Structure and function of bacterial sigma factors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988;57:839–872. [PubMed]
  • Jones CJ, Aizawa S. The bacterial flagellum and flagellar motor: structure, assembly and function. Adv Microb Physiol. 1991;32:109–172. [PubMed]
  • Komeda Y. Fusions of flagellar operons to lactose genes on a mu lac bacteriophage. J Bacteriol. 1982 Apr;150(1):16–26. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Komeda Y. Transcriptional control of flagellar genes in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1986 Dec;168(3):1315–1318. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Komeda Y, Kutsukake K, Iino T. Definition of additional flagellar genes in Escherichia coli K12. Genetics. 1980 Feb;94(2):277–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuo SC, Koshland DE., Jr Sequence of the flaA (cheC) locus of Escherichia coli and discovery of a new gene. J Bacteriol. 1986 Jun;166(3):1007–1012. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kutsukake K, Ohya Y, Iino T. Transcriptional analysis of the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1990 Feb;172(2):741–747. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Macnab RM. Genetics and biogenesis of bacterial flagella. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:131–158. [PubMed]
  • Malakooti J, Komeda Y, Matsumura P. DNA sequence analysis, gene product identification, and localization of flagellar motor components of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989 May;171(5):2728–2734. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McClure WR. Mechanism and control of transcription initiation in prokaryotes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:171–204. [PubMed]
  • Nou X, Skinner B, Braaten B, Blyn L, Hirsch D, Low D. Regulation of pyelonephritis-associated pili phase-variation in Escherichia coli: binding of the PapI and the Lrp regulatory proteins is controlled by DNA methylation. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Feb;7(4):545–553. [PubMed]
  • Ohnishi K, Kutsukake K, Suzuki H, Iino T. Gene fliA encodes an alternative sigma factor specific for flagellar operons in Salmonella typhimurium. Mol Gen Genet. 1990 Apr;221(2):139–147. [PubMed]
  • Raibaud O, Schwartz M. Positive control of transcription initiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1984;18:173–206. [PubMed]
  • Silverman M, Simon M. Characterization of Escherichia coli flagellar mutants that are insensitive to catabolite repression. J Bacteriol. 1974 Dec;120(3):1196–1203. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanaka K, Takayanagi Y, Fujita N, Ishihama A, Takahashi H. Heterogeneity of the principal sigma factor in Escherichia coli: the rpoS gene product, sigma 38, is a second principal sigma factor of RNA polymerase in stationary-phase Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Apr 15;90(8):3511–3515. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Gene
    Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Taxonomy
    Taxonomy
    Related taxonomy entry
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...