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J Bacteriol. Nov 1994; 176(22): 7045–7054.
PMCID: PMC197079

Combined nickel-cobalt-cadmium resistance encoded by the ncc locus of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A.


The nickel-cobalt-cadmium resistance genes carried by plasmid pTOM9 of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31A are located on a 14.5-kb BamHI fragment. By random Tn5 insertion mutagenesis, the fragment was shown to contain two distinct nickel resistance loci, ncc and nre. The ncc locus causes a high-level combined nickel, cobalt, and cadmium resistance in strain AE104, which is a cured derivative of the metal-resistant bacterium Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34. ncc is not expressed in Escherichia coli. The nre locus causes low-level nickel resistance in both Alcaligenes and E. coli strains. The nucleotide sequence of the ncc locus revealed seven open reading frames designated nccYXHCBAN. The corresponding predicted proteins share strong similarities with proteins encoded by the metal resistance loci cnr (cnrYXHCBA) and czc (czcRCBAD) of A. eutrophus CH34. When different DNA fragments carrying ncc genes were heterologously expressed under the control of the bacteriophage T7 promoter, five protein bands representing NccA (116 kDa), NccB (40 kDa), NccC (46 kDa), NccN (23.5 kDa), and NccX (16.5 kDa) were detected.

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