• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Jan 1993; 175(2): 487–502.
PMCID: PMC196164

Structures of and allelic diversity and relationships among the major outer membrane protein (ompA) genes of the four chlamydial species.

Abstract

DNA sequences coding for 81% of the ompA gene from 24 chlamydial strains, representing all chlamydial species, were determined from DNA amplified by polymerase chain reactions. Chlamydial strains of serovars and strains with similar chromosomal restriction fragment length polymorphism had identical ompA DNA sequences. The ompA sequences were segregated into 23 different ompA alleles and aligned with each other, and phylogenetic relationships among them were inferred by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony analyses. The neighbor-joining method produced a single phylogram which was rooted at the branch between two major clusters. One cluster included all Chlamydia trachomatis ompA alleles (trachoma group). The second cluster was composed of three major groups of ompA alleles: psittacosis group (alleles MN, 6BC, A22/M, B577, LW508, FEPN, and GPIC), pneumonia group (Chlamydia pneumoniae AR388 with the allele KOALA), and polyarthritis group (ruminant and porcine chlamydial alleles LW613, 66P130, L71, and 1710S with propensity for polyarthritis). These groups were distinguished through specific DNA sequence signatures. Maximum parsimony analysis yielded two equally most parsimonious phylograms with topologies similar to the ompA tree of neighbor joining. Two phylograms constructed from chlamydial genomic DNA distances had topologies identical to that of the ompA phylogram with respect to branching of the chlamydial species. Human serovars of C. trachomatis with essentially identical genomes represented a single taxonomic unit, while they were divergent in the ompA tree. Consistent with the ompA phylogeny, the porcine isolate S45, previously considered to be Chlamydia psittaci, was identified as C. trachomatis through biochemical characteristics. These data demonstrate that chlamydial ompA allelic relationships, except for human serovars of C. trachomatis, are cognate with chromosomal phylogenies.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Andersen AA. Serotyping of Chlamydia psittaci isolates using serovar-specific monoclonal antibodies with the microimmunofluorescence test. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Apr;29(4):707–711. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bavoil P, Ohlin A, Schachter J. Role of disulfide bonding in outer membrane structure and permeability in Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 1984 May;44(2):479–485. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown WM, Prager EM, Wang A, Wilson AC. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution. J Mol Evol. 1982;18(4):225–239. [PubMed]
  • Campbell LA, Kuo CC, Grayston JT. Characterization of the new Chlamydia agent, TWAR, as a unique organism by restriction endonuclease analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Oct;25(10):1911–1916. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carter MW, al-Mahdawi SA, Giles IG, Treharne JD, Ward ME, Clark IN. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomic value of the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia pneumoniae IOL-207. J Gen Microbiol. 1991 Mar;137(3):465–475. [PubMed]
  • Devereux J, Haeberli P, Smithies O. A comprehensive set of sequence analysis programs for the VAX. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 11;12(1 Pt 1):387–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dykhuizen DE, Green L. Recombination in Escherichia coli and the definition of biological species. J Bacteriol. 1991 Nov;173(22):7257–7268. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eb F, Orfila J, Milon A, Géral MF. Intérêt épidémiologique du typage par immunofluorescence de Chlamydia psittaci. Ann Inst Pasteur Microbiol. 1986 Jul-Aug;137B(1):77–93. [PubMed]
  • Everett KD, Andersen AA, Plaunt M, Hatch TP. Cloning and sequence analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia psittaci 6BC. Infect Immun. 1991 Aug;59(8):2853–2855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fukushi H, Hirai K. Immunochemical diversity of the major outer membrane protein of avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Apr;26(4):675–680. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fukushi H, Hirai K. Genetic diversity of avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci strains and relation to host origin. J Bacteriol. 1989 May;171(5):2850–2855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fukushi H, Hirai K. Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia strains derived from ruminants. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1992 Apr;42(2):306–308. [PubMed]
  • Girjes AA, Hugall AF, Timms P, Lavin MF. Two distinct forms of Chlamydia psittaci associated with disease and infertility in Phascolarctos cinereus (koala). Infect Immun. 1988 Aug;56(8):1897–1900. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamilton PT, Malinowski DP. Nucleotide sequence of the major outer membrane protein gene from Chlamydia trachomatis serovar H. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Oct 25;17(20):8366–8366. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Herring AJ, Anderson IE, McClenaghan M, Inglis NF, Williams H, Matheson BA, West CP, Rodger M, Brettle PP. Restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA from two isolates of Chlamydia psittaci obtained from human abortions. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987 Nov 14;295(6608):1239–1239. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Herring AJ, Tan TW, Baxter S, Inglis NF, Dunbar S. Sequence analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene of an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1989 Nov;53(1-2):153–158. [PubMed]
  • Kaltenboeck B, Kousoulas KG, Storz J. Detection and strain differentiation of Chlamydia psittaci mediated by a two-step polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Sep;29(9):1969–1975. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaltenboeck B, Spatafora JW, Zhang X, Kousoulas KG, Blackwell M, Storz J. Efficient production of single-stranded DNA as long as 2 kb for sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA. Biotechniques. 1992 Feb;12(2):164–171. [PubMed]
  • Kingsbury DT, Weiss E. Lack of deoxyribonucleic acid homology between species of the genus Chlamydia. J Bacteriol. 1968 Oct;96(4):1421–1423. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lawrence JG, Ochman H, Hartl DL. Molecular and evolutionary relationships among enteric bacteria. J Gen Microbiol. 1991 Aug;137(8):1911–1921. [PubMed]
  • Lusher M, Storey CC, Richmond SJ. Plasmid diversity within the genus Chlamydia. J Gen Microbiol. 1989 May;135(5):1145–1151. [PubMed]
  • Mantel N. The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 1967 Feb;27(2):209–220. [PubMed]
  • McClenaghan M, Herring AJ, Aitken ID. Comparison of Chlamydia psittaci isolates by DNA restriction endonuclease analysis. Infect Immun. 1984 Aug;45(2):384–389. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McClenaghan M, Honeycombe JR, Bevan BJ, Herring AJ. Distribution of plasmid sequences in avian and mammalian strains of Chlamydia psittaci. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Mar;134(3):559–565. [PubMed]
  • Perez Melgosa M, Kuo CC, Campbell LA. Sequence analysis of the major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Infect Immun. 1991 Jun;59(6):2195–2199. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nigg C. AN UNIDENTIFIED VIRUS WHICH PRODUCES PNEUMONIA AND SYSTEMIC INFECTION IN MICE. Science. 1942 Jan 9;95(2454):49–50. [PubMed]
  • Perez-Martinez JA, Storz J. Antigenic diversity of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin determined by microimmunofluorescence. Infect Immun. 1985 Dec;50(3):905–910. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Peterson EM, Markoff BA, de la Maza LM. The major outer membrane protein nucleotide sequence of Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar E. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Jun 11;18(11):3414–3414. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ridderhof JC, Barnes RC. Fusion of inclusions following superinfection of HeLa cells by two serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 1989 Oct;57(10):3189–3193. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988 Jan 29;239(4839):487–491. [PubMed]
  • Saitou N, Nei M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987 Jul;4(4):406–425. [PubMed]
  • Schachter J, Banks J, Sugg N, Sung M, Storz J, Meyer KF. Serotyping of Chlamydia. I. Isolates of ovine origin. Infect Immun. 1974 Jan;9(1):92–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schachter J, Banks J, Sugg N, Sung M, Storz J, Meyer KF. Serotyping of Chlamydia: isolates of bovine origin. Infect Immun. 1975 May;11(5):904–907. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schachter J, Ostler HB, Meyer KF. Human infection with the agent of feline pneumonitis. Lancet. 1969 May 31;1(7605):1063–1065. [PubMed]
  • Smith NH, Beltran P, Selander RK. Recombination of Salmonella phase 1 flagellin genes generates new serovars. J Bacteriol. 1990 May;172(5):2209–2216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spears P, Storz J. Biotyping of Chlamydia psittaci based on inclusion morphology and response to diethylaminoethyl-dextran and cycloheximide. Infect Immun. 1979 Apr;24(1):224–232. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stephens RS, Sanchez-Pescador R, Wagar EA, Inouye C, Urdea MS. Diversity of Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein genes. J Bacteriol. 1987 Sep;169(9):3879–3885. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stephens RS, Wagar EA, Schoolnik GK. High-resolution mapping of serovar-specific and common antigenic determinants of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Exp Med. 1988 Mar 1;167(3):817–831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Su H, Morrison RP, Watkins NG, Caldwell HD. Identification and characterization of T helper cell epitopes of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis. J Exp Med. 1990 Jul 1;172(1):203–212. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Takahashi T, Takashima I, Hashimoto N. Immunotyping of Chlamydia psittaci by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test with monoclonal antibodies. Microbiol Immunol. 1988;32(3):251–263. [PubMed]
  • Timms P, Eaves FW, Girjes AA, Lavin MF. Comparison of Chlamydia psittaci isolates by restriction endonuclease and DNA probe analyses. Infect Immun. 1988 Jan;56(1):287–290. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wang SP, Kuo CC, Barnes RC, Stephens RS, Grayston JT. Immunotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis with monoclonal antibodies. J Infect Dis. 1985 Oct;152(4):791–800. [PubMed]
  • Weisburg WG, Hatch TP, Woese CR. Eubacterial origin of chlamydiae. J Bacteriol. 1986 Aug;167(2):570–574. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weiss E, Schramek S, Wilson NN, Newman LW. Deoxyribonucleic Acid Heterogeneity Between Human and Murine Strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. Infect Immun. 1970 Jul;2(1):24–28. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wills J, Gruffydd-Jones TJ, Richmond S, Paul ID. Isolation of Chlamydia psittaci from cases of conjunctivitis in a colony of cats. Vet Rec. 1984 Apr 7;114(14):344–346. [PubMed]
  • Woese CR. Bacterial evolution. Microbiol Rev. 1987 Jun;51(2):221–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yuan Y, Zhang YX, Manning DS, Caldwell HD. Multiple tandem promoters of the major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) of Chlamydia psittaci. Infect Immun. 1990 Sep;58(9):2850–2855. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yuan Y, Zhang YX, Watkins NG, Caldwell HD. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the four variable domains of the major outer membrane proteins of the 15 Chlamydia trachomatis serovars. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr;57(4):1040–1049. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang YX, Morrison SG, Caldwell HD. The nucleotide sequence of major outer membrane protein gene of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar F. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Feb 25;18(4):1061–1061. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang YX, Morrison SG, Caldwell HD, Baehr W. Cloning and sequence analysis of the major outer membrane protein genes of two Chlamydia psittaci strains. Infect Immun. 1989 May;57(5):1621–1625. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...