Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1993 Mar; 175(5): 1392–1404.
PMCID: PMC193226

Characterization of the genes of the 2,3-butanediol operons from Klebsiella terrigena and Enterobacter aerogenes.


The genes involved in the 2,3-butanediol pathway coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, alpha-acetolactate synthase (alpha-ALS), and acetoin (diacetyl) reductase were isolated from Klebsiella terrigena and shown to be located in one operon. This operon was also shown to exist in Enterobacter aerogenes. The budA gene, coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, gives in both organisms a protein of 259 amino acids. The amino acid similarity between these proteins is 87%. The K. terrigena genes budB and budC, coding for alpha-ALS and acetoin reductase, respectively, were sequenced. The 559-amino-acid-long alpha-ALS enzyme shows similarities to the large subunits of the Escherichia coli anabolic alpha-ALS enzymes encoded by the genes ilvB, ilvG, and ilvI. The K. terrigena alpha-ALS is also shown to complement an anabolic alpha-ALS-deficient E. coli strain for valine synthesis. The 243-amino-acid-long acetoin reductase has the consensus amino acid sequence for the insect-type alcohol dehydrogenase/ribitol dehydrogenase family and has extensive similarities with the N-terminal and internal regions of three known dehydrogenases and one oxidoreductase.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Amundesn SK, Neville ME. Comparison of three procedures for isolating DNA from bacteria. Microbios. 1979;24(95):29–39. [PubMed]
  • Blomqvist K, Suihko ML, Knowles J, Penttilä M. Chromosomal Integration and Expression of Two Bacterial alpha-Acetolactate Decarboxylase Genes in Brewer's Yeast. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Oct;57(10):2796–2803. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Booth IR. Regulation of cytoplasmic pH in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1985 Dec;49(4):359–378. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brown TD, Pereira CR, Stormer FC. Studies of the acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase and the butanediol-forming systems in Aerobacter aerogenes. J Bacteriol. 1972 Dec;112(3):1106–1111. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diderichsen B, Wedsted U, Hedegaard L, Jensen BR, Sjøholm C. Cloning of aldB, which encodes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase, an exoenzyme from Bacillus brevis. J Bacteriol. 1990 Aug;172(8):4315–4321. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • EDDY BP. The Voges-Proskauer reaction and its significance: a review. J Appl Bacteriol. 1961 Apr;24:27–41. [PubMed]
  • Friden P, Donegan J, Mullen J, Tsui P, Freundlich M, Eoyang L, Weber R, Silverman PM. The ilvB locus of Escherichia coli K-12 is an operon encoding both subunits of acetohydroxyacid synthase I. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jun 11;13(11):3979–3993. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goelling D, Stahl U. Cloning and expression of an alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene from Streptococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jul;54(7):1889–1891. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Guardiola J, De Felice M, Iaccarino M. Mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 missing acetolactate synthase activity. J Bacteriol. 1974 Oct;120(1):536–538. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • HALPERN YS, UMBARGER HE. Evidence for two distinct enzyme systems forming acetolactate in Aerobacter aerogenes. J Biol Chem. 1959 Dec;234:3067–3071. [PubMed]
  • Harms E, Hsu JH, Subrahmanyam CS, Umbarger HE. Comparison of the regulatory regions of ilvGEDA operons from several enteric organisms. J Bacteriol. 1985 Oct;164(1):207–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henikoff S. Unidirectional digestion with exonuclease III creates targeted breakpoints for DNA sequencing. Gene. 1984 Jun;28(3):351–359. [PubMed]
  • Hohn B, Murray K. Packaging recombinant DNA molecules into bacteriophage particles in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Aug;74(8):3259–3263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Irie S, Doi S, Yorifuji T, Takagi M, Yano K. Nucleotide sequencing and characterization of the genes encoding benzene oxidation enzymes of Pseudomonas putida. J Bacteriol. 1987 Nov;169(11):5174–5179. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johansen L, Bryn K, Stormer FC. Physiological and biochemical role of the butanediol pathway in Aerobacter (Enterobacter) aerogenes. J Bacteriol. 1975 Sep;123(3):1124–1130. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • JUNI E. Mechanisms of formation of acetoin by bacteria. J Biol Chem. 1952 Apr;195(2):715–726. [PubMed]
  • Krook M, Marekov L, Jörnvall H. Purification and structural characterization of placental NAD(+)-linked 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase. The primary structure reveals the enzyme to belong to the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family. Biochemistry. 1990 Jan 23;29(3):738–743. [PubMed]
  • Lawther RP, Calhoun DH, Adams CW, Hauser CA, Gray J, Hatfield GW. Molecular basis of valine resistance in Escherichia coli K-12. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Feb;78(2):922–925. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Loken JP, Stormer FC. Acetolactate decarboxylase from Aerobacter aerogenes. Purification and properties. Eur J Biochem. 1970 May 1;14(1):133–137. [PubMed]
  • Loviny T, Norton PM, Hartley BS. Ribitol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella aerogenes. Sequence of the structural gene. Biochem J. 1985 Sep 15;230(3):579–585. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McMaster GK, Carmichael GG. Analysis of single- and double-stranded nucleic acids on polyacrylamide and agarose gels by using glyoxal and acridine orange. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Nov;74(11):4835–4838. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mizusawa S, Nishimura S, Seela F. Improvement of the dideoxy chain termination method of DNA sequencing by use of deoxy-7-deazaguanosine triphosphate in place of dGTP. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Feb 11;14(3):1319–1324. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Navre M, Ringold GM. A growth factor-repressible gene associated with protein kinase C-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. J Cell Biol. 1988 Jul;107(1):279–286. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raibaud O, Schwartz M. Positive control of transcription initiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 1984;18:173–206. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shaw KJ, Berg CM, Sobol TJ. Salmonella typhimurium mutants defective in acetohydroxy acid synthases I and II. J Bacteriol. 1980 Mar;141(3):1258–1263. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • So M, Boyer HW, Betlach M, Falkow S. Molecular cloning of an Escherichia coli plasmid determinant than encodes for the production of heat-stable enterotoxin. J Bacteriol. 1976 Oct;128(1):463–472. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sone H, Fujii T, Kondo K, Shimizu F, Tanaka J, Inoue T. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the Enterobacter aerogenes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene in brewer's yeast. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jan;54(1):38–42. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spiro S, Guest JR. FNR and its role in oxygen-regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1990 Aug;6(4):399–428. [PubMed]
  • Squires CH, De Felice M, Devereux J, Calvo JM. Molecular structure of ilvIH and its evolutionary relationship to ilvG in Escherichia coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Aug 11;11(15):5299–5313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stormer FC. Evidence for induction of the 2,3-butanediol-forming enzymes in Aerobacter aerogenes. FEBS Lett. 1968 Nov;2(1):36–38. [PubMed]
  • Stormer FC. 2,3-Butanediol biosynthetic system in Aerobacter aerogenes. Methods Enzymol. 1975;41:518–532. [PubMed]
  • Suihko ML, Blomqvist K, Penttilä M, Gisler R, Knowles J. Recombinant brewer's yeast strains suitable for accelerated brewing. J Biotechnol. 1990 Jun;14(3-4):285–300. [PubMed]
  • Wek RC, Hauser CA, Hatfield GW. The nucleotide sequence of the ilvBN operon of Escherichia coli: sequence homologies of the acetohydroxy acid synthase isozymes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Jun 11;13(11):3995–4010. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Umbarger HE. Amino acid biosynthesis and its regulation. Annu Rev Biochem. 1978;47:532–606. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Conserved Domains
    Conserved Domains
    Link to related CDD entry
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...