• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of ajhgLink to Publisher's site
Am J Hum Genet. Oct 1996; 59(4): 935–945.
PMCID: PMC1914796

Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal.

Abstract

The timing and number of prehistoric migrations involved in the settlement of the American continent is subject to intense debate. Here, we reanalyze Native American control region mtDNA data and demonstrate that only an appropriate phylogenetic analysis accompanied by an appreciation of demographic factors allows us to discern different migrations and to estimate their ages. Reappraising 574 mtDNA control region sequences from aboriginal Siberians and Native Americans, we confirm in agreement with linguistic, archaeological and climatic evidence that (i) the major wave of migration brought one population, ancestral to the Amerinds, from northeastern Siberia to America 20,000-25,000 years ago and (ii) a rapid expansion of a Beringian source population took place at the end of the Younger Dryas glacial phase approximately 11,300 years ago, ancestral to present Eskimo and Na-Dene populations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, et al. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature. 1981 Apr 9;290(5806):457–465. [PubMed]
  • Bailliet G, Rothhammer F, Carnese FR, Bravi CM, Bianchi NO. Founder mitochondrial haplotypes in Amerindian populations. Am J Hum Genet. 1994 Jul;55(1):27–33. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Sykes BC, Richards MB. Mitochondrial portraits of human populations using median networks. Genetics. 1995 Oct;141(2):743–753. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Batista O, Kolman CJ, Bermingham E. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in the Kuna Amerinds of Panamá. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 May;4(5):921–929. [PubMed]
  • Chen YS, Torroni A, Excoffier L, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Wallace DC. Analysis of mtDNA variation in African populations reveals the most ancient of all human continent-specific haplogroups. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Jul;57(1):133–149. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Donnelly P, Tavaré S. Coalescents and genealogical structure under neutrality. Annu Rev Genet. 1995;29:401–421. [PubMed]
  • Ginther C, Corach D, Penacino GA, Rey JA, Carnese FR, Hutz MH, Anderson A, Just J, Salzano FM, King MC. Genetic variation among the Mapuche Indians from the Patagonian region of Argentina: mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and allele frequencies of several nuclear genes. EXS. 1993;67:211–219. [PubMed]
  • Hasegawa M, Di Rienzo A, Kocher TD, Wilson AC. Toward a more accurate time scale for the human mitochondrial DNA tree. J Mol Evol. 1993 Oct;37(4):347–354. [PubMed]
  • Hasegawa M, Horai S. Time of the deepest root for polymorphism in human mitochondrial DNA. J Mol Evol. 1991 Jan;32(1):37–42. [PubMed]
  • Hauswirth WW, Dickel CD, Rowold DJ, Hauswirth MA. Inter- and intrapopulation studies of ancient humans. Experientia. 1994 Jun 15;50(6):585–591. [PubMed]
  • Horai S, Hayasaka K. Intraspecific nucleotide sequence differences in the major noncoding region of human mitochondrial DNA. Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Apr;46(4):828–842. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horai S, Kondo R, Nakagawa-Hattori Y, Hayashi S, Sonoda S, Tajima K. Peopling of the Americas, founded by four major lineages of mitochondrial DNA. Mol Biol Evol. 1993 Jan;10(1):23–47. [PubMed]
  • Kolman CJ, Sambuughin N, Bermingham E. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Mongolian populations and implications for the origin of New World founders. Genetics. 1996 Apr;142(4):1321–1334. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kunz ML, Reanier RE. Paleoindians in beringia: evidence from arctic alaska. Science. 1994 Feb 4;263(5147):660–662. [PubMed]
  • Lundstrom R, Tavaré S, Ward RH. Estimating substitution rates from molecular data using the coalescent. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jul 1;89(13):5961–5965. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Merriwether DA, Rothhammer F, Ferrell RE. Distribution of the four founding lineage haplotypes in Native Americans suggests a single wave of migration for the New World. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1995 Dec;98(4):411–430. [PubMed]
  • Morell V. Confusion in earliest america. Science. 1990 Apr 27;248(4954):439–441. [PubMed]
  • Mountain JL, Hebert JM, Bhattacharyya S, Underhill PA, Ottolenghi C, Gadgil M, Cavalli-Sforza LL. Demographic history of India and mtDNA-sequence diversity. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Apr;56(4):979–992. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oota H, Saitou N, Matsushita T, Ueda S. A genetic study of 2,000-year-old human remains from Japan using mitochondrial DNA sequences. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1995 Oct;98(2):133–145. [PubMed]
  • Peltier WR. Ice age paleotopography. Science. 1994 Jul 8;265(5169):195–201. [PubMed]
  • Santos M, Ward RH, Barrantes R. mtDNA variation in the Chibcha Amerindian Huetar from Costa Rica. Hum Biol. 1994 Dec;66(6):963–977. [PubMed]
  • Shields GF, Schmiechen AM, Frazier BL, Redd A, Voevoda MI, Reed JK, Ward RH. mtDNA sequences suggest a recent evolutionary divergence for Beringian and northern North American populations. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Sep;53(3):549–562. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tajima F. The effect of change in population size on DNA polymorphism. Genetics. 1989 Nov;123(3):597–601. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Torroni A, Neel JV, Barrantes R, Schurr TG, Wallace DC. Mitochondrial DNA "clock" for the Amerinds and its implications for timing their entry into North America. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 1;91(3):1158–1162. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Torroni A, Schurr TG, Cabell MF, Brown MD, Neel JV, Larsen M, Smith DG, Vullo CM, Wallace DC. Asian affinities and continental radiation of the four founding Native American mtDNAs. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Sep;53(3):563–590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Torroni A, Sukernik RI, Schurr TG, Starikorskaya YB, Cabell MF, Crawford MH, Comuzzie AG, Wallace DC. mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans. Am J Hum Genet. 1993 Sep;53(3):591–608. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ward RH, Frazier BL, Dew-Jager K, Päbo S. Extensive mitochondrial diversity within a single Amerindian tribe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Oct 1;88(19):8720–8724. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ward RH, Redd A, Valencia D, Frazier B, Päbo S. Genetic and linguistic differentiation in the Americas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Nov 15;90(22):10663–10667. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from American Journal of Human Genetics are provided here courtesy of American Society of Human Genetics

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...