• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of amjpatholAmerican Journal of Pathology For AuthorsAmerican Journal of Pathology SubscribeAmerican Journal of Pathology SearchAmerican Journal of Pathology Current IssueAmerican Journal of Pathology About the JournalAmerican Journal of Pathology
Am J Pathol. Jul 1981; 104(1): 23–34.
PMCID: PMC1903738

The correlation of histologic changes in the human breast with the menstrual cycle.

Abstract

Histologic changes in the normal human mammary gland associated with the menstrual cycle were sought in tissues derived from a defined population of patients undergoing subcutaneous mastectomy or reduction mammoplasty for reasons other than neoplasia. Ninety patients were selected for their regular menstrual cycling, abstinence from hormone use, and absence of disease which might influence pituitary-ovarian cycling. Morphologic changes in the mammary stromal and epithelial components were identified as they related to specific pituitary-ovarian events, and histologic criteria were identified that allowed reproducible morphologic categorization of the mammary gland into five specific phases: proliferative (Days 3-7); follicular phase of differentiation (Days 8-14); luteal phase of differentiation (Days 15-20); secretory (Days 21-27); and menstrual (Days 28-2). Double-blind reviews of tissues confirmed the validity and the reproducibility of these histologic criteria in identifying the menstrual phase. The findings further characterize the morphologic correlates of hormone responsiveness of the normal human mammary gland. The recognition of menstrual-cycle-dependent histologic changes may be expected to provide a basis for extending the interpretation of the morphologic characteristics of the breast in surgically acquired specimens that may be associated with hormonal aberrations.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (4.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • DUPERROY G. Morphological study of the endocervical mucosa in relation to the menstrual cycle and to leucorrhea. Gynaecologia. 1951 Feb;131(2):73–86. [PubMed]
  • McCarty KS, Jr, Kesterson GH, Wilkinson WE, Georgiade N. Histopathologic study of subcutaneous mastectomy specimens from patients with carcinoma of the contralateral breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978 Nov;147(5):682–688. [PubMed]
  • Bässler R. The morphology of hormone induced structural changes in the female breast. Curr Top Pathol. 1970;53:1–89. [PubMed]
  • Bässler R, Schäfer A. Elektronenmikroskopische Cytomorphologie der Gynäkomastie. Virchows Arch A Pathol Pathol Anat. 1969;348(4):356–373. [PubMed]
  • Bässler R, Schäfer A. Elektronenmikroskopische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Morphologie der Gynäkomastie. Verh Dtsch Ges Pathol. 1968;52:491–499. [PubMed]
  • Radnor CJ. Myoepithelial cell differentiation in rat mammary glands. J Anat. 1972 Apr;111(Pt 3):381–398. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hughes EC, Demers LM, Csermely T, Jones DB. Organ culture of human endometrium. Effect of ovarian steroids. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1969 Nov 1;105(5):707–720. [PubMed]
  • BENSON GK, COWIE AT, COX CP, FOLLEY SJ, HOSKING ZD. RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF HEXOESTROL AND PROGESTERONE AS OILY SOLUTIONS AND AS CRYSTALLINE SUSPENSIONS IN INDUCING MAMMARY GROWTH AND LACTATION IN EARLY AND LATE OVARIECTOMIZED GOATS. J Endocrinol. 1965 Jan;31:157–164. [PubMed]
  • Zeppa R. Vascular response of the breast to estrogen. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1969 May;29(5):695–700. [PubMed]
  • ZEPPA R, WOMACK NA. The role of histamine release in chronic cystic mastitis. Surgery. 1962 Jul;52:195–202. [PubMed]
  • OZZELLO L, SPEER FD. The mucopolysaccharides in the normal and diseased breast; their distribution and significance. Am J Pathol. 1958 Sep-Oct;34(5):993–1009. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Golinger RC. Hormones and the pathophysiology of fibrocystic mastopathy. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1978 Feb;146(2):273–285. [PubMed]

Articles from The American Journal of Pathology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Investigative Pathology

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...