• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of gutGutView this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Gut. Jun 2002; 50(Suppl 5): v1–v23.
PMCID: PMC1867706

Guidelines for the management of oesophageal and gastric cancer

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (247K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Eccles M, Clapp Z, Grimshaw J, Adams PC, Higgins B, Purves I, Russell I. North of England evidence based guidelines development project: methods of guideline development. BMJ. 1996 Mar 23;312(7033):760–762. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Blot WJ. Esophageal cancer trends and risk factors. Semin Oncol. 1994 Aug;21(4):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Vaughan TL, Davis S, Kristal A, Thomas DB. Obesity, alcohol, and tobacco as risk factors for cancers of the esophagus and gastric cardia: adenocarcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Mar;4(2):85–92. [PubMed]
  • Hu J, Nyrén O, Wolk A, Bergström R, Yuen J, Adami HO, Guo L, Li H, Huang G, Xu X, et al. Risk factors for oesophageal cancer in northeast China. Int J Cancer. 1994 Apr 1;57(1):38–46. [PubMed]
  • Brown LM, Silverman DT, Pottern LM, Schoenberg JB, Greenberg RS, Swanson GM, Liff JM, Schwartz AG, Hayes RB, Blot WJ, et al. Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction in white men in the United States: alcohol, tobacco, and socioeconomic factors. Cancer Causes Control. 1994 Jul;5(4):333–340. [PubMed]
  • Rolón PA, Castellsagué X, Benz M, Muñoz N. Hot and cold mate drinking and esophageal cancer in Paraguay. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1995 Sep;4(6):595–605. [PubMed]
  • Castelletto R, Castellsague X, Muñoz N, Iscovich J, Chopita N, Jmelnitsky A. Alcohol, tobacco, diet, mate drinking, and esophageal cancer in Argentina. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1994 Oct-Nov;3(7):557–564. [PubMed]
  • Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, Blot WJ, Ji BT, Benichou J, Dai Q, Fraumeni JF., Jr Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Shanghai, China. I. Role of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Int J Cancer. 1994 Jul 15;58(2):192–196. [PubMed]
  • Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Blot WJ, Ji BT, Dai Q, Fraumeni JF., Jr Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Shanghai, China. II. Role of diet and nutrients. Int J Cancer. 1994 Jul 15;58(2):197–202. [PubMed]
  • Tavani A, Negri E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in women in northern Italy. Cancer. 1993 Nov 1;72(9):2531–2536. [PubMed]
  • Cheng KK, Day NE, Duffy SW, Lam TH, Fok M, Wong J. Pickled vegetables in the aetiology of oesophageal cancer in Hong Kong Chinese. Lancet. 1992 May 30;339(8805):1314–1318. [PubMed]
  • Lagergren J, Bergström R, Nyrén O. Association between body mass and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Jun 1;130(11):883–890. [PubMed]
  • Iftikhar SY, James PD, Steele RJ, Hardcastle JD, Atkinson M. Length of Barrett's oesophagus: an important factor in the development of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Gut. 1992 Sep;33(9):1155–1158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lieberman DA, Oehlke M, Helfand M. Risk factors for Barrett's esophagus in community-based practice. GORGE consortium. Gastroenterology Outcomes Research Group in Endoscopy. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997 Aug;92(8):1293–1297. [PubMed]
  • Féry F, Plat L, van de Borne P, Cogan E, Mockel J. Impaired counterregulation of glucose in a patient with hypothalamic sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 18;340(11):852–856. [PubMed]
  • Kreder KJ. Combination drug therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia. JAMA. 1995 Jul 26;274(4):359–359. [PubMed]
  • Loviscek LF, Cenoz MC, Badaloni AE, Agarinakazato O. Early cancer in achalasia. Dis Esophagus. 1998 Oct;11(4):239–247. [PubMed]
  • Meijssen MA, Tilanus HW, van Blankenstein M, Hop WC, Ong GL. Achalasia complicated by oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective study in 195 patients. Gut. 1992 Feb;33(2):155–158. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sedgwick DM, Akoh JA, Macintyre IM. Gastric cancer in Scotland: changing epidemiology, unchanging workload. BMJ. 1991 Jun 1;302(6788):1305–1307. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fielding JW, Ellis DJ, Jones BG, Paterson J, Powell DJ, Waterhouse JA, Brookes VS. Natural history of "early" gastric cancer: results of a 10-year regional survey. Br Med J. 1980 Oct 11;281(6246):965–967. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Allum WH, Powell DJ, McConkey CC, Fielding JW. Gastric cancer: a 25-year review. Br J Surg. 1989 Jun;76(6):535–540. [PubMed]
  • Powell J, McConkey CC. The rising trend in oesophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardia. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1992 Apr;1(3):265–269. [PubMed]
  • Dolan K, Sutton R, Walker SJ, Morris AI, Campbell F, Williams EM. New classification of oesophageal and gastric carcinomas derived from changing patterns in epidemiology. Br J Cancer. 1999 May;80(5-6):834–842. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Correa P. A human model of gastric carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 1988 Jul 1;48(13):3554–3560. [PubMed]
  • Stalsberg H, Taksdal S. Stomach cancer following gastric surgery for benign conditions. Lancet. 1971 Nov 27;2(7735):1175–1177. [PubMed]
  • Forman D, Newell DG, Fullerton F, Yarnell JW, Stacey AR, Wald N, Sitas F. Association between infection with Helicobacter pylori and risk of gastric cancer: evidence from a prospective investigation. BMJ. 1991 Jun 1;302(6788):1302–1305. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parsonnet J, Friedman GD, Vandersteen DP, Chang Y, Vogelman JH, Orentreich N, Sibley RK. Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk of gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 17;325(16):1127–1131. [PubMed]
  • Kuipers EJ. Review article: exploring the link between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Mar;13 (Suppl 1):3–11. [PubMed]
  • Danesh J. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer: systematic review of the epidemiological studies. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Jul;13(7):851–856. [PubMed]
  • Eslick GD, Lim LL, Byles JE, Xia HH, Talley NJ. Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with gastric carcinoma: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Sep;94(9):2373–2379. [PubMed]
  • Huang JQ, Sridhar S, Chen Y, Hunt RH. Meta-analysis of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and gastric cancer. Gastroenterology. 1998 Jun;114(6):1169–1179. [PubMed]
  • Mowat C, Carswell A, Wirz A, McColl KE. Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice. Gastroenterology. 1999 Apr;116(4):813–822. [PubMed]
  • Hill MJ. Salt and gastric cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998 Jun;7(3):173–175. [PubMed]
  • Trédaniel J, Boffetta P, Buiatti E, Saracci R, Hirsch A. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 1997 Aug 7;72(4):565–573. [PubMed]
  • Neugut AI, Hayek M, Howe G. Epidemiology of gastric cancer. Semin Oncol. 1996 Jun;23(3):281–291. [PubMed]
  • Talley NJ, Weaver AL, Tesmer DL, Zinsmeister AR. Lack of discriminant value of dyspepsia subgroups in patients referred for upper endoscopy. Gastroenterology. 1993 Nov;105(5):1378–1386. [PubMed]
  • Bytzer P, Hansen JM, Havelund T, Malchow-Møller A, Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB. Predicting endoscopic diagnosis in the dyspeptic patient: the value of clinical judgement. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1996 Apr;8(4):359–363. [PubMed]
  • Jones RH, Lydeard SE, Hobbs FD, Kenkre JE, Williams EI, Jones SJ, Repper JA, Caldow JL, Dunwoodie WM, Bottomley JM. Dyspepsia in England and Scotland. Gut. 1990 Apr;31(4):401–405. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Martin IG, Young S, Sue-Ling H, Johnston D. Delays in the diagnosis of oesophagogastric cancer: a consecutive case series. BMJ. 1997 Feb 15;314(7079):467–470. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kohli Y, Kawai K, Fujita S. Analytical studies on growth of human gastric cancer. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1981 Jun;3(2):129–133. [PubMed]
  • Dooley CP, Larson AW, Stace NH, Renner IG, Valenzuela JE, Eliasoph J, Colletti PM, Halls JM, Weiner JM. Double-contrast barium meal and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A comparative study. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Oct;101(4):538–545. [PubMed]
  • Adachi Y, Kitamura K, Tsutsui S, Ikeda Y, Matsuda H, Sugimachi K. How to detect early carcinoma of the esophagus. Hepatogastroenterology. 1993 Jun;40(3):207–211. [PubMed]
  • Garg PK, Misra MC, Bal S, Tandon RK. Foreign body in the esophagus mimicking esophageal carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996 Feb;91(2):397–398. [PubMed]
  • Msika S, Tazi MA, Benhamiche AM, Couillault C, Harb M, Faivre J. Population-based study of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 1997 Oct;84(10):1474–1478. [PubMed]
  • Sue-Ling HM, Johnston D, Martin IG, Dixon MF, Lansdown MR, McMahon MJ, Axon AT. Gastric cancer: a curable disease in Britain. BMJ. 1993 Sep 4;307(6904):591–596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suvakovic Z, Bramble MG, Jones R, Wilson C, Idle N, Ryott J. Improving the detection rate of early gastric cancer requires more than open access gastroscopy: a five year study. Gut. 1997 Sep;41(3):308–313. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilkins WE, Walker J, McNulty MR, Britton DC, Gough KR. The organisation and evaluation of an open-access dysphagia clinic. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1984 Mar;66(2):115–116. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lambert R. Palliation of carcinoma of the esophagus: is there a hope for cure? Am J Gastroenterol. 1994 Aug;89(8 Suppl):S27–S40. [PubMed]
  • Hallissey MT, Allum WH, Jewkes AJ, Ellis DJ, Fielding JW. Early detection of gastric cancer. BMJ. 1990 Sep 15;301(6751):513–515. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eckardt VF, Giessler W, Kanzler G, Remmele W, Bernhard G. Clinical and morphological characteristics of early gastric cancer. A case-control study. Gastroenterology. 1990 Mar;98(3):708–714. [PubMed]
  • Fuchs CS, Mayer RJ. Gastric carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1995 Jul 6;333(1):32–41. [PubMed]
  • Johannessen T, Petersen H, Kleveland PM, Dybdahl JH, Sandvik AK, Brenna E, Waldum H. The predictive value of history in dyspepsia. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1990 Jul;25(7):689–697. [PubMed]
  • Bytzer P, Hansen JM, Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB, Malchow-Møller A. Predicting endoscopic diagnosis in the dyspeptic patient. The value of predictive score models. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Feb;32(2):118–125. [PubMed]
  • Talley NJ, Silverstein MD, Agréus L, Nyrén O, Sonnenberg A, Holtmann G. AGA technical review: evaluation of dyspepsia. American Gastroenterological Association. Gastroenterology. 1998 Mar;114(3):582–595. [PubMed]
  • Bramble MG, Suvakovic Z, Hungin AP. Detection of upper gastrointestinal cancer in patients taking antisecretory therapy prior to gastroscopy. Gut. 2000 Apr;46(4):464–467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wayman J, Hayes N, Griffin SM. The response of early gastric cancer to proton-pump inhibitors. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 25;338(26):1924–1925. [PubMed]
  • Glaws WR, Etzkorn KP, Wenig BL, Zulfiqar H, Wiley TE, Watkins JL. Comparison of rigid and flexible esophagoscopy in the diagnosis of esophageal disease: diagnostic accuracy, complications, and cost. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996 Apr;105(4):262–266. [PubMed]
  • Boyce GA. Endoscopic evaluation of the patient with esophageal carcinoma. Chest Surg Clin N Am. 1994 May;4(2):257–268. [PubMed]
  • Levine DS, Haggitt RC, Blount PL, Rabinovitch PS, Rusch VW, Reid BJ. An endoscopic biopsy protocol can differentiate high-grade dysplasia from early adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology. 1993 Jul;105(1):40–50. [PubMed]
  • Spechler SJ, Zeroogian JM, Antonioli DA, Wang HH, Goyal RK. Prevalence of metaplasia at the gastro-oesophageal junction. Lancet. 1994 Dec 3;344(8936):1533–1536. [PubMed]
  • Falk GW, Rice TW, Goldblum JR, Richter JE. Jumbo biopsy forceps protocol still misses unsuspected cancer in Barrett's esophagus with high-grade dysplasia. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Feb;49(2):170–176. [PubMed]
  • Macdonald CE, Wicks AC, Playford RJ. Final results from 10 year cohort of patients undergoing surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus: observational study. BMJ. 2000 Nov 18;321(7271):1252–1255. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lal N, Bhasin DK, Malik AK, Gupta NM, Singh K, Mehta SK. Optimal number of biopsy specimens in the diagnosis of carcinoma of the oesophagus. Gut. 1992 Jun;33(6):724–726. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saunders HS, Wolfman NT, Ott DJ. Esophageal cancer. Radiologic staging. Radiol Clin North Am. 1997 Mar;35(2):281–294. [PubMed]
  • Takashima S, Takeuchi N, Shiozaki H, Kobayashi K, Morimoto S, Ikezoe J, Tomiyama N, Harada K, Shogen K, Kozuka T. Carcinoma of the esophagus: CT vs MR imaging in determining resectability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991 Feb;156(2):297–302. [PubMed]
  • Ziegler K, Sanft C, Zeitz M, Friedrich M, Stein H, Häring R, Riecken EO. Evaluation of endosonography in TN staging of oesophageal cancer. Gut. 1991 Jan;32(1):16–20. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Van Overhagen H, Laméris JS, Berger MY, Tilanus HW, Van Pel R, Klooswijk AI, Schütte HE. Improved assessment of supraclavicular and abdominal metastases in oesophageal and gastro-oesophageal junction carcinoma with the combination of ultrasound and computed tomography. Br J Radiol. 1993 Mar;66(783):203–208. [PubMed]
  • Minami M, Kawauchi N, Itai Y, Niki T, Sasaki Y. Gastric tumors: radiologic-pathologic correlation and accuracy of T staging with dynamic CT. Radiology. 1992 Oct;185(1):173–178. [PubMed]
  • Cho JS, Kim JK, Rho SM, Lee HY, Jeong HY, Lee CS. Preoperative assessment of gastric carcinoma: value of two-phase dynamic CT with mechanical iv. injection of contrast material. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 Jul;163(1):69–75. [PubMed]
  • Davies J, Chalmers AG, Sue-Ling HM, May J, Miller GV, Martin IG, Johnston D. Spiral computed tomography and operative staging of gastric carcinoma: a comparison with histopathological staging. Gut. 1997 Sep;41(3):314–319. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • van Overhagen H, Laméris JS, Berger MY, Klooswijk AI, Tilanus HW, van Pel R, Schütte HE. CT assessment of resectability prior to transhiatal esophagectomy for esophageal/gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1993 May-Jun;17(3):367–373. [PubMed]
  • Fukuya T, Honda H, Kaneko K, Kuroiwa T, Yoshimitsu K, Irie H, Maehara Y, Masuda K. Efficacy of helical CT in T-staging of gastric cancer. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1997 Jan-Feb;21(1):73–81. [PubMed]
  • Tio TL, Cohen P, Coene PP, Udding J, den Hartog Jager FC, Tytgat GN. Endosonography and computed tomography of esophageal carcinoma. Preoperative classification compared to the new (1987) TNM system. Gastroenterology. 1989 Jun;96(6):1478–1486. [PubMed]
  • Dittler HJ, Siewert JR. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in esophageal carcinoma. Endoscopy. 1993 Feb;25(2):156–161. [PubMed]
  • Vilgrain V, Mompoint D, Palazzo L, Menu Y, Gayet B, Ollier P, Nahum H, Fekete F. Staging of esophageal carcinoma: comparison of results with endoscopic sonography and CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 Aug;155(2):277–281. [PubMed]
  • Botet JF, Lightdale CJ, Zauber AG, Gerdes H, Urmacher C, Brennan MF. Preoperative staging of esophageal cancer: comparison of endoscopic US and dynamic CT. Radiology. 1991 Nov;181(2):419–425. [PubMed]
  • Hordijk ML, Zander H, van Blankenstein M, Tilanus HW. Influence of tumor stenosis on the accuracy of endosonography in preoperative T staging of esophageal cancer. Endoscopy. 1993 Feb;25(2):171–175. [PubMed]
  • Binmoeller KF, Seifert H, Seitz U, Izbicki JR, Kida M, Soehendra N. Ultrasonic esophagoprobe for TNM staging of highly stenosing esophageal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 Jun;41(6):547–552. [PubMed]
  • Ziegler K, Sanft C, Zimmer T, Zeitz M, Felsenberg D, Stein H, Germer C, Deutschmann C, Riecken EO. Comparison of computed tomography, endosonography, and intraoperative assessment in TN staging of gastric carcinoma. Gut. 1993 May;34(5):604–610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Catalano MF, Sivak MV, Jr, Rice T, Gragg LA, Van Dam J. Endosonographic features predictive of lymph node metastasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1994 Jul-Aug;40(4):442–446. [PubMed]
  • Grimm H, Binmoeller KF, Hamper K, Koch J, Henne-Bruns D, Soehendra N. Endosonography for preoperative locoregional staging of esophageal and gastric cancer. Endoscopy. 1993 Mar;25(3):224–230. [PubMed]
  • Catalano MF, Alcocer E, Chak A, Nguyen CC, Raijman I, Geenen JE, Lahoti S, Sivak MV., Jr Evaluation of metastatic celiac axis lymph nodes in patients with esophageal carcinoma: accuracy of EUS. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Sep;50(3):352–356. [PubMed]
  • Bhutani MS, Hawes RH, Hoffman BJ. A comparison of the accuracy of echo features during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration for diagnosis of malignant lymph node invasion. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Jun;45(6):474–479. [PubMed]
  • Quint LE, Hepburn LM, Francis IR, Whyte RI, Orringer MB. Incidence and distribution of distant metastases from newly diagnosed esophageal carcinoma. Cancer. 1995 Oct 1;76(7):1120–1125. [PubMed]
  • Kuszyk BS, Bluemke DA, Urban BA, Choti MA, Hruban RH, Sitzmann JV, Fishman EK. Portal-phase contrast-enhanced helical CT for the detection of malignant hepatic tumors: sensitivity based on comparison with intraoperative and pathologic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996 Jan;166(1):91–95. [PubMed]
  • Jones EC, Chezmar JL, Nelson RC, Bernardino ME. The frequency and significance of small (less than or equal to 15 mm) hepatic lesions detected by CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1992 Mar;158(3):535–539. [PubMed]
  • Schwartz LH, Gandras EJ, Colangelo SM, Ercolani MC, Panicek DM. Prevalence and importance of small hepatic lesions found at CT in patients with cancer. Radiology. 1999 Jan;210(1):71–74. [PubMed]
  • Takashima S, Takeuchi N, Shiozaki H, Kobayashi K, Morimoto S, Ikezoe J, Tomiyama N, Harada K, Shogen K, Kozuka T. Carcinoma of the esophagus: CT vs MR imaging in determining resectability. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1991 Feb;156(2):297–302. [PubMed]
  • Matsushita M, Oi H, Murakami T, Takata N, Kim T, Kishimoto H, Nakamura H, Okamoto S, Okamura J. Extraserosal invasion in advanced gastric cancer: evaluation with MR imaging. Radiology. 1994 Jul;192(1):87–91. [PubMed]
  • Hagspiel KD, Neidl KF, Eichenberger AC, Weder W, Marincek B. Detection of liver metastases: comparison of superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced and unenhanced MR imaging at 1.5 T with dynamic CT, intraoperative US, and percutaneous US. Radiology. 1995 Aug;196(2):471–478. [PubMed]
  • Stell DA, Carter CR, Stewart I, Anderson JR. Prospective comparison of laparoscopy, ultrasonography and computed tomography in the staging of gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 1996 Sep;83(9):1260–1262. [PubMed]
  • Molloy RG, McCourtney JS, Anderson JR. Laparoscopy in the management of patients with cancer of the gastric cardia and oesophagus. Br J Surg. 1995 Mar;82(3):352–354. [PubMed]
  • Hünerbein M, Rau B, Schlag PM. Laparoscopy and laparoscopic ultrasound for staging of upper gastrointestinal tumours. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1995 Feb;21(1):50–55. [PubMed]
  • Miros M, Kerlin P, Walker N. Only patients with dysplasia progress to adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus. Gut. 1991 Dec;32(12):1441–1446. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tytgat GN. Endoscopic features of the columnar-lined esophagus. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1997 Sep;26(3):507–517. [PubMed]
  • Paraf F, Fléjou JF, Pignon JP, Fékété F, Potet F. Surgical pathology of adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's esophagus. Analysis of 67 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995 Feb;19(2):183–191. [PubMed]
  • Sagar PM, Johnston D, McMahon MJ, Dixon MF, Quirke P. Significance of circumferential resection margin involvement after oesophagectomy for cancer. Br J Surg. 1993 Nov;80(11):1386–1388. [PubMed]
  • Tsutsui S, Kuwano H, Watanabe M, Kitamura M, Sugimachi K. Resection margin for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Surg. 1995 Aug;222(2):193–202. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rokkas T, Filipe MI, Sladen GE. Detection of an increased incidence of early gastric cancer in patients with intestinal metaplasia type III who are closely followed up. Gut. 1991 Oct;32(10):1110–1113. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldstein NS, Lewin KJ. Gastric epithelial dysplasia and adenoma: historical review and histological criteria for grading. Hum Pathol. 1997 Feb;28(2):127–133. [PubMed]
  • Lansdown M, Quirke P, Dixon MF, Axon AT, Johnston D. High grade dysplasia of the gastric mucosa: a marker for gastric carcinoma. Gut. 1990 Sep;31(9):977–983. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kajiyama Y, Tsurumaru M, Udagawa H, Tsutsumi K, Kinoshita Y, Ueno M, Akiyama H. Prognostic factors in adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia: pathologic stage analysis and multivariate regression analysis. J Clin Oncol. 1997 May;15(5):2015–2021. [PubMed]
  • Baba H, Okuyama T, Hiroyuki O, Anai H, Korenaga D, Maehara Y, Akazawa K, Sugimachi K. Prognostic factors for noncurative gastric cancer: univariate and multivariate analyses. J Surg Oncol. 1992 Oct;51(2):104–108. [PubMed]
  • Mori M, Adachi Y, Kamakura T, Ikeda Y, Maehara Y, Sugimachi K. Neural invasion in gastric carcinoma. J Clin Pathol. 1995 Feb;48(2):137–142. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jakl RJ, Miholic J, Koller R, Markis E, Wolner E. Prognostic factors in adenocarcinoma of the cardia. Am J Surg. 1995 Mar;169(3):316–319. [PubMed]
  • Japanese Society for Esophageal Diseases Guide lines for the clinical and pathologic studies on carcinoma of the esophagus. Jpn J Surg. 1976 Jun;6(2):69–78. [PubMed]
  • Compton C, Sobin LH. Protocol for the examination of specimens removed from patients with gastric carcinoma: a basis for checklists. Members of the Cancer Committee, College of American Pathologists, and the Task Force for Protocols on the Examination of Specimens From Patients With Gastric Cancer. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998 Jan;122(1):9–14. [PubMed]
  • Aikou T, Shimazu H. Difference in main lymphatic pathways from the lower esophagus and gastric cardia. Jpn J Surg. 1989 May;19(3):290–295. [PubMed]
  • Prytherch DR, Whiteley MS, Higgins B, Weaver PC, Prout WG, Powell SJ. POSSUM and Portsmouth POSSUM for predicting mortality. Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and morbidity. Br J Surg. 1998 Sep;85(9):1217–1220. [PubMed]
  • Goldman L, Caldera DL, Nussbaum SR, Southwick FS, Krogstad D, Murray B, Burke DS, O'Malley TA, Goroll AH, Caplan CH, et al. Multifactorial index of cardiac risk in noncardiac surgical procedures. N Engl J Med. 1977 Oct 20;297(16):845–850. [PubMed]
  • Goldman L, Caldera DL. Risks of general anesthesia and elective operation in the hypertensive patient. Anesthesiology. 1979 Apr;50(4):285–292. [PubMed]
  • Goldman L. Assessment of perioperative cardiac risk. N Engl J Med. 1994 Mar 10;330(10):707–709. [PubMed]
  • Curran JE, Grounds RM. Ward versus intensive care management of high-risk surgical patients. Br J Surg. 1998 Jul;85(7):956–961. [PubMed]
  • Wong DH, Weber EC, Schell MJ, Wong AB, Anderson CT, Barker SJ. Factors associated with postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Anesth Analg. 1995 Feb;80(2):276–284. [PubMed]
  • Fan ST, Lau WY, Yip WC, Poon GP, Yeung C, Lam WK, Wong KK. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in oesophagogastric cancer surgery. Br J Surg. 1987 May;74(5):408–410. [PubMed]
  • Smith TP, Kinasewitz GT, Tucker WY, Spillers WP, George RB. Exercise capacity as a predictor of post-thoracotomy morbidity. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1984 May;129(5):730–734. [PubMed]
  • Ninan M, Sommers KE, Landreneau RJ, Weyant RJ, Tobias J, Luketich JD, Ferson PF, Keenan RJ. Standardized exercise oximetry predicts postpneumonectomy outcome. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Aug;64(2):328–333. [PubMed]
  • Juste RN, Lawson AD, Soni N. Minimising cardiac anaesthetic risk: the tortoise or the hare? Anaesthesia. 1996 Mar;51(3):255–262. [PubMed]
  • Nunn JF, Milledge JS, Chen D, Dore C. Respiratory criteria of fitness for surgery and anaesthesia. Anaesthesia. 1988 Jul;43(7):543–551. [PubMed]
  • Entwistle MD, Roe PG, Sapsford DJ, Berrisford RG, Jones JG. Patterns of oxygenation after thoracotomy. Br J Anaesth. 1991 Dec;67(6):704–711. [PubMed]
  • Nagawa H, Kobori O, Muto T. Prediction of pulmonary complications after transthoracic oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1994 Jun;81(6):860–862. [PubMed]
  • Shenkman Z, Shir Y, Brodsky JB. Perioperative management of the obese patient. Br J Anaesth. 1993 Mar;70(3):349–359. [PubMed]
  • Blazeby JM, Farndon JR, Donovan J, Alderson D. A prospective longitudinal study examining the quality of life of patients with esophageal carcinoma. Cancer. 2000 Apr 15;88(8):1781–1787. [PubMed]
  • Dresner SM, Lamb PJ, Shenfine J, Hayes N, Griffin SM. Prognostic significance of peri-operative blood transfusion following radical resection for oesophageal carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2000 Aug;26(5):492–497. [PubMed]
  • Müller JM, Erasmi H, Stelzner M, Zieren U, Pichlmaier H. Surgical therapy of oesophageal carcinoma. Br J Surg. 1990 Aug;77(8):845–857. [PubMed]
  • Bonavina L. Early oesophageal cancer: results of a European multicentre survey. Group Européen pour l'Etude des Maladies de l'Oesophage. Br J Surg. 1995 Jan;82(1):98–101. [PubMed]
  • Hölscher AH, Bollschweiler E, Schneider PM, Siewert JR. Early adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus. Br J Surg. 1997 Oct;84(10):1470–1473. [PubMed]
  • Lerut T, De Leyn P, Coosemans W, Van Raemdonck D, Scheys I, LeSaffre E. Surgical strategies in esophageal carcinoma with emphasis on radical lymphadenectomy. Ann Surg. 1992 Nov;216(5):583–590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartels H, Stein HJ, Siewert JR. Preoperative risk analysis and postoperative mortality of oesophagectomy for resectable oesophageal cancer. Br J Surg. 1998 Jun;85(6):840–844. [PubMed]
  • Matthews HR, Powell DJ, McConkey CC. Effect of surgical experience on the results of resection for oesophageal carcinoma. Br J Surg. 1986 Aug;73(8):621–623. [PubMed]
  • ELLIS FH, Jr, JACKSON RC, KRUEGER JT, Jr, MOERSCH HJ, CLAGETT OT, GAGE RP. Carcinoma of the esophagus and cardia; results of treatment, 1946 to 1956. N Engl J Med. 1959 Feb 19;260(8):351–358. [PubMed]
  • Ellis FH., Jr Treatment of carcinoma of the esophagus or cardia. Mayo Clin Proc. 1989 Aug;64(8):945–955. [PubMed]
  • Skinner DB. En bloc resection for neoplasms of the esophagus and cardia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1983 Jan;85(1):59–71. [PubMed]
  • Skinner DB, Little AG, Ferguson MK, Soriano A, Staszak VM. Selection of operation for esophageal cancer based on staging. Ann Surg. 1986 Oct;204(4):391–401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sugimachi K, Watanabe M, Sadanaga N, Ikebe M, Kitamura K, Mori M, Kuwano H. Recent advances in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus. J Am Coll Surg. 1994 Apr;178(4):363–368. [PubMed]
  • MILLER C. Carcinoma of thoracic oesophagus and cardia. A review of 405 cases. Br J Surg. 1962 Mar;49:507–522. [PubMed]
  • Giuli R, Sancho-Garnier H. Diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic features of cancers of the esophagus: results of the international prospective study conducted by the OESO group (790 patients). Surgery. 1986 May;99(5):614–622. [PubMed]
  • Tam PC, Siu KF, Cheung HC, Ma L, Wong J. Local recurrences after subtotal esophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma. Ann Surg. 1987 Feb;205(2):189–194. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sons HU, Borchard F. Cancer of the distal esophagus and cardia. Incidence, tumorous infiltration, and metastatic spread. Ann Surg. 1986 Feb;203(2):188–195. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Alderson D, Courtney SP, Kennedy RH. Radical transhiatal oesophagectomy under direct vision. Br J Surg. 1994 Mar;81(3):404–407. [PubMed]
  • Roder JD, Busch R, Stein HJ, Fink U, Siewert JR. Ratio of invaded to removed lymph nodes as a predictor of survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus. Br J Surg. 1994 Mar;81(3):410–413. [PubMed]
  • Akiyama H, Tsurumaru M, Udagawa H, Kajiyama Y. Radical lymph node dissection for cancer of the thoracic esophagus. Ann Surg. 1994 Sep;220(3):364–373. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hölscher AH, Voit H, Buttermann G, Siewert JR. Function of the intrathoracic stomach as esophageal replacement. World J Surg. 1988 Dec;12(6):835–844. [PubMed]
  • Cheung HC, Siu KF, Wong J. Is pyloroplasty necessary in esophageal replacement by stomach? A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Surgery. 1987 Jul;102(1):19–24. [PubMed]
  • DeMeester TR, Johansson KE, Franze I, Eypasch E, Lu CT, McGill JE, Zaninotto G. Indications, surgical technique, and long-term functional results of colon interposition or bypass. Ann Surg. 1988 Oct;208(4):460–474. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bartels H, Thorban S, Siewert JR. Anterior versus posterior reconstruction after transhiatal oesophagectomy: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Surg. 1993 Sep;80(9):1141–1144. [PubMed]
  • van Lanschot JJ, van Blankenstein M, Oei HY, Tilanus HW. Randomized comparison of prevertebral and retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction after resection of oesophageal carcinoma. Br J Surg. 1999 Jan;86(1):102–108. [PubMed]
  • Fok M, Ah-Chong AK, Cheng SW, Wong J. Comparison of a single layer continuous hand-sewn method and circular stapling in 580 oesophageal anastomoses. Br J Surg. 1991 Mar;78(3):342–345. [PubMed]
  • Valverde A, Hay JM, Fingerhut A, Elhadad A. Manual versus mechanical esophagogastric anastomosis after resection for carcinoma: a controlled trial. French Associations for Surgical Research. Surgery. 1996 Sep;120(3):476–483. [PubMed]
  • Zieren HU, Müller JM, Pichlmaier H. Prospective randomized study of one- or two-layer anastomosis following oesophageal resection and cervical oesophagogastrostomy. Br J Surg. 1993 May;80(5):608–611. [PubMed]
  • Wakefield SE, Mansell NJ, Baigrie RJ, Dowling BL. Use of a feeding jejunostomy after oesophagogastric surgery. Br J Surg. 1995 Jun;82(6):811–813. [PubMed]
  • Fan ST, Lau WY, Yip WC, Poon GP, Yeung C, Lam WK, Wong KK. Prediction of postoperative pulmonary complications in oesophagogastric cancer surgery. Br J Surg. 1987 May;74(5):408–410. [PubMed]
  • Nagawa H, Kobori O, Muto T. Prediction of pulmonary complications after transthoracic oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1994 Jun;81(6):860–862. [PubMed]
  • Watson A. Operable esophageal cancer: current results from the West. World J Surg. 1994 May-Jun;18(3):361–366. [PubMed]
  • Watson A, Allen PR. Influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on outcome after resection for esophageal cancer. Surgery. 1994 Apr;115(4):429–432. [PubMed]
  • Vigneswaran WT, Trastek VF, Pairolero PC, Deschamps C, Daly RC, Allen MS. Transhiatal esophagectomy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg. 1993 Oct;56(4):838–846. [PubMed]
  • Sauvanet A, Baltar J, Le Mee J, Belghiti J. Diagnosis and conservative management of intrathoracic leakage after oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1998 Oct;85(10):1446–1449. [PubMed]
  • Paterson IM, Wong J. Anastomotic leakage: an avoidable complication of Lewis-Tanner oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1989 Feb;76(2):127–129. [PubMed]
  • Lam TC, Fok M, Cheng SW, Wong J. Anastomotic complications after esophagectomy for cancer. A comparison of neck and chest anastomoses. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1992 Aug;104(2):395–400. [PubMed]
  • Bolger C, Walsh TN, Tanner WA, Keeling P, Hennessy TP. Chylothorax after oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1991 May;78(5):587–588. [PubMed]
  • Dougenis D, Walker WS, Cameron EW, Walbaum PR. Management of chylothorax complicating extensive esophageal resection. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1992 Jun;174(6):501–506. [PubMed]
  • Dugue L, Sauvanet A, Farges O, Goharin A, Le Mee J, Belghiti J. Output of chyle as an indicator of treatment for chylothorax complicating oesophagectomy. Br J Surg. 1998 Aug;85(8):1147–1149. [PubMed]
  • Orringer MB, Bluett M, Deeb GM. Aggressive treatment of chylothorax complicating transhiatal esophagectomy without thoracotomy. Surgery. 1988 Oct;104(4):720–726. [PubMed]
  • Griffin SM, Chung SC, van Hasselt CA, Li AK. Late swallowing and aspiration problems after esophagectomy for cancer: malignant infiltration of the recurrent laryngeal nerves and its management. Surgery. 1992 Sep;112(3):533–535. [PubMed]
  • Orringer MB. Transhiatal esophagectomy without thoracotomy for carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus. Ann Surg. 1984 Sep;200(3):282–288. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Finley RJ, Inculet RI. The results of esophagogastrectomy without thoracotomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction. Ann Surg. 1989 Oct;210(4):535–543. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pierie JP, de Graaf PW, Poen H, van der Tweel I, Obertop H. Incidence and management of benign anastomotic stricture after cervical oesophagogastrostomy. Br J Surg. 1993 Apr;80(4):471–474. [PubMed]
  • Akoh JA, Macintyre IM. Improving survival in gastric cancer: review of 5-year survival rates in English language publications from 1970. Br J Surg. 1992 Apr;79(4):293–299. [PubMed]
  • Cuschieri A, Fayers P, Fielding J, Craven J, Bancewicz J, Joypaul V, Cook P. Postoperative morbidity and mortality after D1 and D2 resections for gastric cancer: preliminary results of the MRC randomised controlled surgical trial. The Surgical Cooperative Group. Lancet. 1996 Apr 13;347(9007):995–999. [PubMed]
  • Hayes N, Karat D, Scott DJ, Raimes SA, Griffin SM. Radical lymphadenectomy in the management of early gastric cancer. Br J Surg. 1996 Oct;83(10):1421–1423. [PubMed]
  • Siewert JR, Böttcher K, Roder JD, Busch R, Hermanek P, Meyer HJ. Prognostic relevance of systematic lymph node dissection in gastric carcinoma. German Gastric Carcinoma Study Group. Br J Surg. 1993 Aug;80(8):1015–1018. [PubMed]
  • Siewert JR, Kestlmeier R, Busch R, Böttcher K, Roder JD, Müller J, Fellbaum C, Höfler H. Benefits of D2 lymph node dissection for patients with gastric cancer and pN0 and pN1 lymph node metastases. Br J Surg. 1996 Aug;83(8):1144–1147. [PubMed]
  • Maruyama K, Gunvén P, Okabayashi K, Sasako M, Kinoshita T. Lymph node metastases of gastric cancer. General pattern in 1931 patients. Ann Surg. 1989 Nov;210(5):596–602. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Seto Y, Nagawa H, Muto T. Results of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer cases with N2 lymph node metastasis. Int Surg. 1997 Jul-Sep;82(3):257–261. [PubMed]
  • Cuschieri A, Weeden S, Fielding J, Bancewicz J, Craven J, Joypaul V, Sydes M, Fayers P. Patient survival after D1 and D2 resections for gastric cancer: long-term results of the MRC randomized surgical trial. Surgical Co-operative Group. Br J Cancer. 1999 Mar;79(9-10):1522–1530. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bonenkamp JJ, Hermans J, Sasako M, van de Velde CJ, Welvaart K, Songun I, Meyer S, Plukker JT, Van Elk P, Obertop H, et al. Extended lymph-node dissection for gastric cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 25;340(12):908–914. [PubMed]
  • Griffith JP, Sue-Ling HM, Martin I, Dixon MF, McMahon MJ, Axon AT, Johnston D. Preservation of the spleen improves survival after radical surgery for gastric cancer. Gut. 1995 May;36(5):684–690. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wanebo HJ, Kennedy BJ, Winchester DP, Stewart AK, Fremgen AM. Role of splenectomy in gastric cancer surgery: adverse effect of elective splenectomy on longterm survival. J Am Coll Surg. 1997 Aug;185(2):177–184. [PubMed]
  • Okajima K, Isozaki H. Splenectomy for treatment of gastric cancer: Japanese experience. World J Surg. 1995 Jul-Aug;19(4):537–540. [PubMed]
  • Maruyama K, Sasako M, Kinoshita T, Sano T, Katai H, Okajima K. Pancreas-preserving total gastrectomy for proximal gastric cancer. World J Surg. 1995 Jul-Aug;19(4):532–536. [PubMed]
  • Parikh D, Johnson M, Chagla L, Lowe D, McCulloch P. D2 gastrectomy: lessons from a prospective audit of the learning curve. Br J Surg. 1996 Nov;83(11):1595–1599. [PubMed]
  • Ando N, Iizuka T, Kakegawa T, Isono K, Watanabe H, Ide H, Tanaka O, Shinoda M, Takiyama W, Arimori M, et al. A randomized trial of surgery with and without chemotherapy for localized squamous carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus: the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1997 Aug;114(2):205–209. [PubMed]
  • Kelsen DP, Ginsberg R, Pajak TF, Sheahan DG, Gunderson L, Mortimer J, Estes N, Haller DG, Ajani J, Kocha W, et al. Chemotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone for localized esophageal cancer. N Engl J Med. 1998 Dec 31;339(27):1979–1984. [PubMed]
  • Arnott SJ, Duncan W, Gignoux M, Girling DJ, Hansen HS, Launois B, Nygaard K, Parmar MK, Roussel A, Spiliopoulos G, et al. Preoperative radiotherapy in esophageal carcinoma: a meta-analysis using individual patient data (Oesophageal Cancer Collaborative Group). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1998 Jun 1;41(3):579–583. [PubMed]
  • Nygaard K, Hagen S, Hansen HS, Hatlevoll R, Hultborn R, Jakobsen A, Mäntyla M, Modig H, Munck-Wikland E, Rosengren B, et al. Pre-operative radiotherapy prolongs survival in operable esophageal carcinoma: a randomized, multicenter study of pre-operative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The second Scandinavian trial in esophageal cancer. World J Surg. 1992 Nov-Dec;16(6):1104–1110. [PubMed]
  • Le Prise E, Etienne PL, Meunier B, Maddern G, Ben Hassel M, Gedouin D, Boutin D, Campion JP, Launois B. A randomized study of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery versus surgery for localized squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Cancer. 1994 Apr 1;73(7):1779–1784. [PubMed]
  • Walsh TN, Noonan N, Hollywood D, Kelly A, Keeling N, Hennessy TP. A comparison of multimodal therapy and surgery for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1996 Aug 15;335(7):462–467. [PubMed]
  • Bosset JF, Gignoux M, Triboulet JP, Tiret E, Mantion G, Elias D, Lozach P, Ollier JC, Pavy JJ, Mercier M, et al. Chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery compared with surgery alone in squamous-cell cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 17;337(3):161–167. [PubMed]
  • Poplin E, Fleming T, Leichman L, Seydel HG, Steiger Z, Taylor S, Vance R, Stuckey WJ, Rivkin SE. Combined therapies for squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus, a Southwest Oncology Group Study (SWOG-8037). J Clin Oncol. 1987 Apr;5(4):622–628. [PubMed]
  • Forastiere AA, Orringer MB, Perez-Tamayo C, Urba SG, Husted S, Takasugi BJ, Zahurak M. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy followed by transhiatal esophagectomy for local-regional cancer of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Jan;8(1):119–127. [PubMed]
  • Stahl M, Vanhoefer U, Stuschke M, Walz MK, Müller C, Wilke H. Pre-operative sequential chemo- and radiochemotherapy in locally advanced carcinomas of the lower oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal junction. Eur J Cancer. 1998 Apr;34(5):668–673. [PubMed]
  • Hermans J, Bonenkamp JJ, Boon MC, Bunt AM, Ohyama S, Sasako M, Van de Velde CJ. Adjuvant therapy after curative resection for gastric cancer: meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Clin Oncol. 1993 Aug;11(8):1441–1447. [PubMed]
  • Pignon JP, Ducreux M, Rougier P. Meta-analysis of adjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer: a critical reappraisal. J Clin Oncol. 1994 Apr;12(4):877–878. [PubMed]
  • Hagiwara A, Takahashi T, Kojima O, Sawai K, Yamaguchi T, Yamane T, Taniguchi H, Kitamura K, Noguchi A, Seiki K, et al. Prophylaxis with carbon-adsorbed mitomycin against peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer. Lancet. 1992 Mar 14;339(8794):629–631. [PubMed]
  • Rosen HR, Jatzko G, Repse S, Potrc S, Neudorfer H, Sandbichler P, Zacherl J, Rabl H, Holzberger P, Lisborg P, et al. Adjuvant intraperitoneal chemotherapy with carbon-adsorbed mitomycin in patients with gastric cancer: results of a randomized multicenter trial of the Austrian Working Group for Surgical Oncology. J Clin Oncol. 1998 Aug;16(8):2733–2738. [PubMed]
  • Kelsen D, Karpeh M, Schwartz G, Gerdes H, Lightdale C, Botet J, Lauers G, Klimstra D, Huang Y, Saltz L, et al. Neoadjuvant therapy of high-risk gastric cancer: a phase II trial of preoperative FAMTX and postoperative intraperitoneal fluorouracil-cisplatin plus intravenous fluorouracil. J Clin Oncol. 1996 Jun;14(6):1818–1828. [PubMed]
  • Yu W, Whang I, Suh I, Averbach A, Chang D, Sugarbaker PH. Prospective randomized trial of early postoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy as an adjuvant to resectable gastric cancer. Ann Surg. 1998 Sep;228(3):347–354. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fink U, Schuhmacher C, Stein HJ, Busch R, Feussner H, Dittler HJ, Helmberger A, Böttcher K, Siewert JR. Preoperative chemotherapy for stage III-IV gastric carcinoma: feasibility, response and outcome after complete resection. Br J Surg. 1995 Sep;82(9):1248–1252. [PubMed]
  • Ross PJ, Rao S, Cunningham D. Chemotherapy of oesophago-gastric cancer. Pathol Oncol Res. 1998;4(2):87–95. [PubMed]
  • Wilke H, Preusser P, Fink U, Gunzer U, Meyer HJ, Meyer J, Siewert JR, Achterrath W, Lenaz L, Knipp H, et al. Preoperative chemotherapy in locally advanced and nonresectable gastric cancer: a phase II study with etoposide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin. J Clin Oncol. 1989 Sep;7(9):1318–1326. [PubMed]
  • Rougier P, Mahjoubi M, Lasser P, Ducreux M, Oliveira J, Ychou M, Pignon JP, Elias D, Bellefqih S, Bognel C, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric carcinoma--a phase II trial with combined continuous intravenous 5-fluorouracil and bolus cisplatinum. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(9):1269–1275. [PubMed]
  • Songun I, Keizer HJ, Hermans J, Klementschitsch P, de Vries JE, Wils JA, van der Bijl J, van Krieken JH, van de Velde CJ. Chemotherapy for operable gastric cancer: results of the Dutch randomised FAMTX trial. The Dutch Gastric Cancer Group (DGCG). Eur J Cancer. 1999 Apr;35(4):558–562. [PubMed]
  • Loizou LA, Rampton D, Atkinson M, Robertson C, Bown SG. A prospective assessment of quality of life after endoscopic intubation and laser therapy for malignant dysphagia. Cancer. 1992 Jul 15;70(2):386–391. [PubMed]
  • Herskovic A, Martz K, al-Sarraf M, Leichman L, Brindle J, Vaitkevicius V, Cooper J, Byhardt R, Davis L, Emami B. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy compared with radiotherapy alone in patients with cancer of the esophagus. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jun 11;326(24):1593–1598. [PubMed]
  • Webb A, Cunningham D, Scarffe JH, Harper P, Norman A, Joffe JK, Hughes M, Mansi J, Findlay M, Hill A, et al. Randomized trial comparing epirubicin, cisplatin, and fluorouracil versus fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and methotrexate in advanced esophagogastric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Jan;15(1):261–267. [PubMed]
  • Kok TC. Chemotherapy in oesophageal cancer. Cancer Treat Rev. 1997 Mar;23(2):65–85. [PubMed]
  • Andreyev HJ, Norman AR, Cunningham D, Padhani AR, Hill AS, Ross PJ, Webb A. Squamous oesophageal cancer can be downstaged using protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil with epirubicin and cisplatin (ECF). Eur J Cancer. 1995 Dec;31A(13-14):2209–2214. [PubMed]
  • Highley MS, Parnis FX, Trotter GA, Houston SJ, Penson RT, Harper PG, Mason RC. Combination chemotherapy with epirubicin, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for the palliation of advanced gastric and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Br J Surg. 1994 Dec;81(12):1763–1765. [PubMed]
  • van der Gaast A, Kok TC, Kerkhofs L, Siersema PD, Tilanus HW, Splinter TA. Phase I study of a biweekly schedule of a fixed dose of cisplatin with increasing doses of paclitaxel in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jun;80(7):1052–1057. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ilson DH, Ajani J, Bhalla K, Forastiere A, Huang Y, Patel P, Martin L, Donegan J, Pazdur R, Reed C, et al. Phase II trial of paclitaxel, fluorouracil, and cisplatin in patients with advanced carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol. 1998 May;16(5):1826–1834. [PubMed]
  • Albertsson M, Ewers SB, Widmark H, Hambraeus G, Lillo-Gil R, Ranstam J. Evaluation of the palliative effect of radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. Acta Oncol. 1989;28(2):267–270. [PubMed]
  • Caspers RJ, Welvaart K, Verkes RJ, Hermans J, Leer JW. The effect of radiotherapy on dysphagia and survival in patients with esophageal cancer. Radiother Oncol. 1988 May;12(1):15–23. [PubMed]
  • Cwikiel M, Cwikiel W, Albertsson M. Palliation of dysphagia in patients with malignant esophageal strictures. Comparison of results of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and esophageal stent treatment. Acta Oncol. 1996;35(1):75–79. [PubMed]
  • Pyrhönen S, Kuitunen T, Nyandoto P, Kouri M. Randomised comparison of fluorouracil, epidoxorubicin and methotrexate (FEMTX) plus supportive care with supportive care alone in patients with non-resectable gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. 1995 Mar;71(3):587–591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glimelius B, Ekström K, Hoffman K, Graf W, Sjödén PO, Haglund U, Svensson C, Enander LK, Linné T, Sellström H, et al. Randomized comparison between chemotherapy plus best supportive care with best supportive care in advanced gastric cancer. Ann Oncol. 1997 Feb;8(2):163–168. [PubMed]
  • Murad AM, Santiago FF, Petroianu A, Rocha PR, Rodrigues MA, Rausch M. Modified therapy with 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and methotrexate in advanced gastric cancer. Cancer. 1993 Jul 1;72(1):37–41. [PubMed]
  • Findlay M, Cunningham D, Norman A, Mansi J, Nicolson M, Hickish T, Nicolson V, Nash A, Sacks N, Ford H, et al. A phase II study in advanced gastro-esophageal cancer using epirubicin and cisplatin in combination with continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil (ECF). Ann Oncol. 1994 Sep;5(7):609–616. [PubMed]
  • Waters JS, Norman A, Cunningham D, Scarffe JH, Webb A, Harper P, Joffe JK, Mackean M, Mansi J, Leahy M, et al. Long-term survival after epirubicin, cisplatin and fluorouracil for gastric cancer: results of a randomized trial. Br J Cancer. 1999 Apr;80(1-2):269–272. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kim YH, Shin SW, Kim BS, Kim JH, Kim JG, Mok YJ, Kim CS, Rhyu HS, Hyun JH, Kim JS. Paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced gastric carcinoma. Cancer. 1999 Jan 15;85(2):295–301. [PubMed]
  • Boku N, Ohtsu A, Shimada Y, Shirao K, Seki S, Saito H, Sakata Y, Hyodo I. Phase II study of a combination of irinotecan and cisplatin against metastatic gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1999 Jan;17(1):319–323. [PubMed]
  • Shirao K, Shimada Y, Kondo H, Saito D, Yamao T, Ono H, Yokoyama T, Fukuda H, Oka M, Watanabe Y, et al. Phase I-II study of irinotecan hydrochloride combined with cisplatin in patients with advanced gastric cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Mar;15(3):921–927. [PubMed]
  • Aste H, Munizzi F, Martines H, Pugliese V. Esophageal dilation in malignant dysphagia. Cancer. 1985 Dec 1;56(11):2713–2715. [PubMed]
  • Moses FM, Peura DA, Wong RK, Johnson LF. Palliative dilation of esophageal carcinoma. Gastrointest Endosc. 1985 Apr;31(2):61–63. [PubMed]
  • Lundell L, Leth R, Lind T, Lönroth H, Sjövall M, Olbe L. Palliative endoscopic dilatation in carcinoma of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Acta Chir Scand. 1989 Mar;155(3):179–184. [PubMed]
  • Payne-James JJ, Spiller RC, Misiewicz JJ, Silk DB. Use of ethanol-induced tumor necrosis to palliate dysphagia in patients with esophagogastric cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 1990 Jan-Feb;36(1):43–46. [PubMed]
  • Lee FI, Bellary SV. Ethanol-induced tumor necrosis to palliate esophago-gastric cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 1990 Jul-Aug;36(4):418–419. [PubMed]
  • Stanners AJ, Malu AO, Miloszewski KJ. Alcohol injection for palliation of malignant oesophageal disease. Lancet. 1993 Mar 20;341(8847):767–767. [PubMed]
  • Moreira LS, Coelho RC, Sadala RU, Dani R. The use of ethanol injection under endoscopic control to palliate dysphagia caused by esophagogastric cancer. Endoscopy. 1994 Mar;26(3):311–314. [PubMed]
  • Nwokolo CU, Payne-James JJ, Silk DB, Misiewicz JJ, Loft DE. Palliation of malignant dysphagia by ethanol induced tumour necrosis. Gut. 1994 Mar;35(3):299–303. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chung SC, Leong HT, Choi CY, Leung JW, Li AK. Palliation of malignant oesophageal obstruction by endoscopic alcohol injection. Endoscopy. 1994 Mar;26(3):275–277. [PubMed]
  • Güitrón A, Adalid R, Huerta F, Macías M, Sánchez-Navarrete M. Tratamiento paliativo de cáncer esofágico mediante inyección transendoscópica de alcohol. Rev Gastroenterol Mex. 1996 Jul-Sep;61(3):208–211. [PubMed]
  • Loscos JM, Calvo E, Alvarez-Sala JL, Espinos D. Treatment of dysphagia and massive hemorrhage in esophageal carcinoma by ethanol injection. Endoscopy. 1993 Oct;25(8):544–544. [PubMed]
  • Fiorini A, Roca E, Capizzano M. Recanalización endoscópica con etanol, en el tratamiento de la disfagia de origen neoplásico. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 1992;22(3):197–199. [PubMed]
  • Roseveare CD, Patel P, Simmonds N, Goggin PM, Kimble J, Shepherd HA. Metal stents improve dysphagia, nutrition and survival in malignant oesophageal stenosis: a randomized controlled trial comparing modified Gianturco Z-stents with plastic Atkinson tubes. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1998 Aug;10(8):653–657. [PubMed]
  • Siersema PD, Hop WC, Dees J, Tilanus HW, van Blankenstein M. Coated self-expanding metal stents versus latex prostheses for esophagogastric cancer with special reference to prior radiation and chemotherapy: a controlled, prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 1998 Feb;47(2):113–120. [PubMed]
  • De Palma GD, di Matteo E, Romano G, Fimmano A, Rondinone G, Catanzano C. Plastic prosthesis versus expandable metal stents for palliation of inoperable esophageal thoracic carcinoma: a controlled prospective study. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 May;43(5):478–482. [PubMed]
  • Knyrim K, Wagner HJ, Bethge N, Keymling M, Vakil N. A controlled trial of an expansile metal stent for palliation of esophageal obstruction due to inoperable cancer. N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 28;329(18):1302–1307. [PubMed]
  • Bohnacker S, Thonke F, Hinner M, Seitz U, Binmoeller KF, Brand B, Rathod VD, Soehendra N. Improved endoscopic stenting for malignant dysphagia using Tygon plastic prostheses. Endoscopy. 1998 Aug;30(6):524–531. [PubMed]
  • Atkinson M, Ferguson R, Ogilvie AL. Management of malignant dysphagia by intubation at endoscopy. J R Soc Med. 1979 Dec;72(12):894–897. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jones DB, Davies PS, Smith PM. Endoscopic insertion of palliative oesophageal tubes in oesophagogastric neoplasms. Br J Surg. 1981 Mar;68(3):197–198. [PubMed]
  • Sagar PM, Gauperaa T, Sue-Ling H, McMahon MJ, Johnston D. An audit of the treatment of cancer of the oesophagus. Gut. 1994 Jul;35(7):941–945. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Maydeo AP, Bapaye A, Desai PN, Khanna SS, Deshpande RK, Badve R. Endoscopic placement of indigenous plastic esophageal endoprostheses--does it still have a role in the era of expandable metallic stents? A prospective Indian study in 265 consecutive patients. Endoscopy. 1998 Aug;30(6):532–537. [PubMed]
  • Grund KE, Storek D, Becker HD. Highly flexible self-expanding meshed metal stents for palliation of malignant esophagogastric obstruction. Endoscopy. 1995 Sep;27(7):486–494. [PubMed]
  • Ell C, May A, Hahn EG. Gianturco-Z stents in the palliative treatment of malignant esophageal obstruction and esophagotracheal fistulas. Endoscopy. 1995 Sep;27(7):495–500. [PubMed]
  • Ellul JP, Watkinson A, Khan RJ, Adam A, Mason RC. Self-expanding metal stents for the palliation of dysphagia due to inoperable oesophageal carcinoma. Br J Surg. 1995 Dec;82(12):1678–1681. [PubMed]
  • Song HY, Choi KC, Kwon HC, Yang DH, Cho BH, Lee ST. Esophageal strictures: treatment with a new design of modified Gianturco stent. Work in progress. Radiology. 1992 Sep;184(3):729–734. [PubMed]
  • Wu WC, Katon RM, Saxon RR, Barton RE, Uchida BT, Keller FS, Rösch J. Silicone-covered self-expanding metallic stents for the palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction and esophagorespiratory fistulas: experience in 32 patients and a review of the literature. Gastrointest Endosc. 1994 Jan-Feb;40(1):22–33. [PubMed]
  • Vermeijden JR, Bartelsman JF, Fockens P, Meijer RC, Tytgat GN. Self-expanding metal stents for palliation of esophagocardial malignancies. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 Jan;41(1):58–63. [PubMed]
  • Neuhaus H, Hoffmann W, Dittler HJ, Niedermeyer HP, Classen M. Implantation of self-expanding esophageal metal stents for palliation of malignant dysphagia. Endoscopy. 1992 Jun;24(5):405–410. [PubMed]
  • Segalin A, Bonavina L, Carazzone A, Ceriani C, Peracchia A. Improving results of esophageal stenting: a study on 160 consecutive unselected patients. Endoscopy. 1997 Oct;29(8):701–709. [PubMed]
  • Kozarek RA, Raltz S, Marcon N, Kortan P, Haber G, Lightdale C, Stevens P, Lehman G, Rex D, Benjamin S, et al. Use of the 25 mm flanged esophageal Z stent for malignant dysphagia: a prospective multicenter trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Aug;46(2):156–160. [PubMed]
  • Birch JF, White SA, Berry DP, Veitch PS. A cost-benefit comparison of self-expanding metal stents and Atkinson tubes for the palliation of obstructing esophageal tumors. Dis Esophagus. 1998 Jul;11(3):172–176. [PubMed]
  • Sargeant IR, Thorpe S, Bown SG. Cuffed esophageal prosthesis: a useful device in desperate situations in esophageal malignancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1992 Nov-Dec;38(6):669–675. [PubMed]
  • Han YM, Song HY, Lee JM, Cho SI, Chung GH, Kim CS, Sohn MH, Choi KC. Esophagorespiratory fistulae due to esophageal carcinoma: palliation with a covered Gianturco stent. Radiology. 1996 Apr;199(1):65–70. [PubMed]
  • May A, Ell C. Palliative treatment of malignant esophagorespiratory fistulas with Gianturco-Z stents. A prospective clinical trial and review of the literature on covered metal stents. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998 Apr;93(4):532–535. [PubMed]
  • Nelson DB, Axelrad AM, Fleischer DE, Kozarek RA, Silvis SE, Freeman ML, Benjamin SB. Silicone-covered Wallstent prototypes for palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction and digestive-respiratory fistulas. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Jan;45(1):31–37. [PubMed]
  • Do YS, Song HY, Lee BH, Byun HS, Kim KH, Chin SY, Park JH. Esophagorespiratory fistula associated with esophageal cancer: treatment with a Gianturco stent tube. Radiology. 1993 Jun;187(3):673–677. [PubMed]
  • Weigert N, Neuhaus H, Rösch T, Hoffmann W, Dittler HJ, Classen M. Treatment of esophagorespiratory fistulas with silicone-coated self-expanding metal stents. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 May;41(5):490–496. [PubMed]
  • Kozarek RA, Raltz S, Brugge WR, Schapiro RH, Waxman I, Boyce HW, Baillie J, Branch MS, Stevens PD, Lightdale CJ, et al. Prospective multicenter trial of esophageal Z-stent placement for malignant dysphagia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 Nov;44(5):562–567. [PubMed]
  • Fiorini AB, Goldin E, Valero JL, Bloom A, Beyar M, Pfeffer RP, Globerman O. Expandable metal coil stent for treatment of broncho-esophageal fistula. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 Jul;42(1):81–83. [PubMed]
  • Watkinson A, Ellul J, Entwisle K, Farrugia M, Mason R, Adam A. Plastic-covered metallic endoprostheses in the management of oesophageal perforation in patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Clin Radiol. 1995 May;50(5):304–309. [PubMed]
  • Oliver SE, Robertson CS, Logan RF, Sokal M, Pearson JC, Atkinson M. What does radiotherapy add to survival over endoscopic intubation alone in inoperable squamous cell oesophageal cancer? Gut. 1990 Jul;31(7):750–752. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bethge N, Sommer A, von Kleist D, Vakil N. A prospective trial of self-expanding metal stents in the palliation of malignant esophageal obstruction after failure of primary curative therapy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 Sep;44(3):283–286. [PubMed]
  • Kinsman KJ, DeGregorio BT, Katon RM, Morrison K, Saxon RR, Keller FS, Rosch J. Prior radiation and chemotherapy increase the risk of life-threatening complications after insertion of metallic stents for esophagogastric malignancy. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 Mar;43(3):196–203. [PubMed]
  • Nemoto K, Takai Y, Ogawa Y, Kakuto Y, Ariga H, Matsushita H, Wada H, Yamada S. Fatal hemorrhage in irradiated esophageal cancer patients. Acta Oncol. 1998;37(3):259–262. [PubMed]
  • Uno Y, Obara K, Kanazawa K, Sasaki Y, Fukuda S, Munakata A. Stent implantation for malignant pyloric stenosis. Gastrointest Endosc. 1997 Dec;46(6):552–555. [PubMed]
  • Loizou LA, Grigg D, Atkinson M, Robertson C, Bown SG. A prospective comparison of laser therapy and intubation in endoscopic palliation for malignant dysphagia. Gastroenterology. 1991 May;100(5 Pt 1):1303–1310. [PubMed]
  • Buset M, des Marez B, Baize M, Bourgeois N, de Boelpaepe C, de Toeuf J, Cremer M. Palliative endoscopic management of obstructive esophagogastric cancer: laser or prosthesis? Gastrointest Endosc. 1987 Oct;33(5):357–361. [PubMed]
  • Alderson D, Wright PD. Laser recanalization versus endoscopic intubation in the palliation of malignant dysphagia. Br J Surg. 1990 Oct;77(10):1151–1153. [PubMed]
  • Carter R, Smith JS, Anderson JR. Laser recanalization versus endoscopic intubation in the palliation of malignant dysphagia: a randomized prospective study. Br J Surg. 1992 Nov;79(11):1167–1170. [PubMed]
  • Bourke MJ, Hope RL, Chu G, Gillespie PE, Bull C, O'Rourke I, Williams SJ. Laser palliation of inoperable malignant dysphagia: initial and at death. Gastrointest Endosc. 1996 Jan;43(1):29–32. [PubMed]
  • Hurley JF, Cade RJ. Laser photocoagulation in the treatment of malignant dysphagia. Aust N Z J Surg. 1997 Nov;67(11):800–803. [PubMed]
  • Maciel J, Barbosa J, Leal AS. Nd-YAG laser as a palliative treatment for malignant dysphagia. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1996 Feb;22(1):69–73. [PubMed]
  • Mitty RD, Cave DR, Birkett DH. One-stage retrograde approach to Nd:YAG laser palliation of esophageal carcinoma. Endoscopy. 1996 May;28(4):350–355. [PubMed]
  • Krasner N, Barr H, Skidmore C, Morris AI. Palliative laser therapy for malignant dysphagia. Gut. 1987 Jul;28(7):792–798. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gossner L, Ell C. Malignant strictures. Thermal treatment. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 1998 Apr;8(2):493–501. [PubMed]
  • Gevers AM, Macken E, Hiele M, Rutgeerts P. A comparison of laser therapy, plastic stents, and expandable metal stents for palliation of malignant dysphagia in patients without a fistula. Gastrointest Endosc. 1998 Oct;48(4):383–388. [PubMed]
  • Barr H, Krasner N, Raouf A, Walker RJ. Prospective randomised trial of laser therapy only and laser therapy followed by endoscopic intubation for the palliation of malignant dysphagia. Gut. 1990 Mar;31(3):252–258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sargeant IR, Tobias JS, Blackman G, Thorpe S, Glover JR, Bown SG. Radiotherapy enhances laser palliation of malignant dysphagia: a randomised study. Gut. 1997 Mar;40(3):362–369. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bader M, Dittler HJ, Ultsch B, Ries G, Siewert JR. Palliative treatment of malignant stenoses of the upper gastrointestinal tract using a combination of laser and afterloading therapy. Endoscopy. 1986 Mar;18 (Suppl 1):27–31. [PubMed]
  • Tan CC, Freeman JG, Holmes GK, Benghiat A. Laser therapy combined with brachytherapy for the palliation of malignant dysphagia. Singapore Med J. 1998 May;39(5):202–207. [PubMed]
  • Shmueli E, Srivastava E, Dawes PJ, Clague M, Matthewson K, Record CO. Combination of laser treatment and intraluminal radiotherapy for malignant dysphagia. Gut. 1996 Jun;38(6):803–805. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spencer GM, Thorpe SM, Sargeant IR, Blackman GM, Solano J, Tobias JS, Bown SG. Laser and brachytherapy in the palliation of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and cardia. Gut. 1996 Nov;39(5):726–731. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sawant D, Moghissi K. Management of unresectable oesophageal cancer: a review of 537 patients. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1994;8(3):113–117. [PubMed]
  • Lightdale CJ, Heier SK, Marcon NE, McCaughan JS, Jr, Gerdes H, Overholt BF, Sivak MV, Jr, Stiegmann GV, Nava HR. Photodynamic therapy with porfimer sodium versus thermal ablation therapy with Nd:YAG laser for palliation of esophageal cancer: a multicenter randomized trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 1995 Dec;42(6):507–512. [PubMed]
  • Heier SK, Rothman KA, Heier LM, Rosenthal WS. Photodynamic therapy for obstructing esophageal cancer: light dosimetry and randomized comparison with Nd:YAG laser therapy. Gastroenterology. 1995 Jul;109(1):63–72. [PubMed]
  • Waghorn A, Thompson J, McKee M. Routine surgical follow up: do surgeons agree? BMJ. 1995 Nov 18;311(7016):1344–1345. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hulton NR, Hargreaves AW. Is long-term follow-up of all colorectal cancer necessary? J R Coll Surg Edinb. 1989 Feb;34(1):21–24. [PubMed]
  • Huguier M, Houry S, Lacaine F. Is the follow-up of patients operated on for gastric carcinoma of benefit to the patient? Hepatogastroenterology. 1992 Feb;39(1):14–16. [PubMed]
  • Dewar J. Follow up in breast cancer. BMJ. 1995 Mar 18;310(6981):685–686. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cochrane JP, Williams JT, Faber RG, Slack WW. Value of outpatient follow-up after curative surgery for carcinoma of the large bowel. Br Med J. 1980 Mar 1;280(6214):593–595. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kiebert GM, Welvaart K, Kievit J. Psychological effects of routine follow up on cancer patients after surgery. Eur J Surg. 1993 Nov-Dec;159(11-12):601–607. [PubMed]

Articles from Gut are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...