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J Clin Invest. Dec 1995; 96(6): 2882–2891.
PMCID: PMC185999

Protective effect of high density lipoprotein associated paraoxonase. Inhibition of the biological activity of minimally oxidized low density lipoprotein.

Abstract

Our group has previously demonstrated that oxidized phospholipids in mildly oxidized LDL (MM-LDL) produced by oxidation with lipoxygenase, iron, or cocultures of artery wall cells increase monocyte-endothelial interactions and this sequence of events is blocked by HDL. To obtain further insight into the mechanism by which HDL abolishes the activity of MM-LDL we investigated the effect of the HDL-associated ester hydrolase paraoxonase (PON). Treatment of MM-LDL with purified PON significantly reduced the ability of MM-LDL to induce monocyte-endothelial interactions. Inactivation of PON by pretreating HDL with heat or EDTA reduced the ability of HDL to inhibit LDL modification. HPLC analysis of phospholipids isolated from MM-LDL before and after treatment with purified PON showed that the 270 nm absorbance of phospholipids was decreased, while no effect was observed on 235 nm absorbance. Oxidized 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (Ox-PAPC) and specific fractions of Ox-PAPC isolated by HPLC induced the same monocyte-endothelial interactions as did MM-LDL. Biologically active and inactive HPLC fractions of Ox-PAPC were compared by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry which revealed that active fractions possessed ions with a mass to charge [correction of change] ratio greater than native PAPC by multiples of 16 D suggesting the addition of 3 and 4 oxygen atoms to PAPC. Comparison of Ox-PAPC by fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry before and after PON treatment showed that PON destroyed these multi-oxygenated molecules found in biologically active fractions of Ox-PAPC. These results suggest that PON in HDL may protect against the induction of inflammatory responses in artery wall cells by destroying biologically active lipids in mildly oxidized LDL.

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