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Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 May; 55(5): 1052–1057.
PMCID: PMC184253

More monensin-sensitive, ammonia-producing bacteria from the rumen.


Two monensin-sensitive bacteria which utilized carbohydrates poorly and grew rapidly on amino acids were isolated from the bovine rumen. The short rods (strain SR) fermented arginine, serine, lysine, glutamine, and threonine rapidly (greater than 158 nmol/mg of protein per h) and grew faster on casein digest containing short peptides than on free amino acids ().34 versus 0.29 h(-1)). Gelatin hydrolysate, an amino acid source containing an abundance of long peptides, was unable to support growth or ammonia production, but there was a large increase in ammonia production if strain SR was cocultured with peptidase-producing ruminal bacteria (Bacteroides ruminicola or Streptococcus bovis). Cocultures showed no synergism with short peptides. Strain SR washed out of continuous culture ().1 h(-1)) at pH 5.9. The irregularly shaped organisms (strain F) deaminated glutamine, histidine, glutamate, and serine rapidly (greater than 137 nmol/mg of protein per min) and grew faster on free amino acids than on short peptides ().43 versus 0.21 h(-1)). When strain F was provided with casein or gelatin hydrolysate and cocultured with peptidase-producing bacteria, there was a more than additive increase in ammonia production. Strain F grew in continuous culture (0.1 h(-1)) when the pH was as low as 5.3. The irregularly shaped cells and short rods were present at less than 10(9)/ml in vivo, but they ahd very high specific activities of ammonia production (greater than 310 nmol of ammonia/mg of protein per min) and could play an important role in ruminal amino acid fermentation.

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Selected References

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