• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of aemPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalAEM ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Appl Environ Microbiol. Mar 1991; 57(3): 721–726.
PMCID: PMC182786

Use of Ultrafiltration To Isolate Viruses from Seawater Which Are Pathogens of Marine Phytoplankton

Abstract

Viruses may be major structuring elements of phytoplankton communities and hence important regulators of nutrient and energy fluxes in aquatic environments. In order to ascertain whether viruses are potentially important in dictating phytoplankton community structure, it is essential to determine the extent to which representative phytoplankton taxa are susceptible to viral infection. We used a spiral ultrafiltration cartridge (30,000-molecular-weight cutoff) to concentrate viruses from seawater at efficiencies approaching 100%. Natural virus communities were concentrated from stations in the Gulf of Mexico, a barrier island pass, and a hypersaline lagoon (Laguna Madre) and added to cultures of potential phytoplankton hosts. By following changes in in vivo fluorescence over time, it was possible to isolate several viruses that were pathogens to a variety of marine phytoplankton, including a prasinophyte (Micromonas pusilla), a pennate diatom (likely a Navicula sp.), a centric diatom (of unknown taxa), and a chroococcoid cyanobacterium (a Synechococcus sp.). As well, we observed changes in fluorescence in cultures of a cryptophyte (a Rhodomonas sp.) and a chlorophyte (Nannochloropsis oculata) which were consistent with the presence of viral pathogens. Although pathogens were isolated from all stations, all the pathogens were not isolated from every station. Filterability studies on the viruses infecting M. pusilla and the Navicula sp. showed that the viruses were consistently infective after filtration through polycarbonate and glass-fiber filters but were affected by most other filter types. Establishment of phytoplankton-pathogen systems will be important in elucidating the effect that viruses have on primary producers in aquatic systems.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Bergh O, Børsheim KY, Bratbak G, Heldal M. High abundance of viruses found in aquatic environments. Nature. 1989 Aug 10;340(6233):467–468. [PubMed]
  • Coleman AW, Maguire MJ, Coleman JR. Mithramycin- and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-DNA staining for fluorescence microspectrophotometric measurement of DNA in nuclei, plastids, and virus particles. J Histochem Cytochem. 1981 Aug;29(8):959–968. [PubMed]
  • Padan E, Shilo M, Kislev N. Isolation of "cyanophages" from freshwater ponds and their interaction with Plectonema boryanum. Virology. 1967 Jun;32(2):234–246. [PubMed]
  • Safferman RS, Cannon RE, Desjardins PR, Gromov BV, Haselkorn R, Sherman LA, Shilo M. Classification and nomenclature of viruses of cyanobacteria. Intervirology. 1983;19(2):61–66. [PubMed]
  • SAFFERMAN RS, MORRIS ME. Algal virus: isolation. Science. 1963 May 10;140(3567):679–680. [PubMed]
  • SPENCER R. A marine bacteriophage. Nature. 1955 Apr 16;175(4459):690–691. [PubMed]
  • Spencer R. INDIGENOUS MARINE BACTERIOPHAGES. J Bacteriol. 1960 Apr;79(4):614–614. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Applied and Environmental Microbiology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...