Logo of bullnyacadmedspringer.comThis journalToc AlertsSubmit OnlineOpen ChoiceThis journal
Bull N Y Acad Med. Sep 1989; 65(7): 774–786.
PMCID: PMC1807825

Menstrual function and its relationship to stress, exercise, and body weight.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Fries H, Nillius SJ. Dieting, anorexia nervosa and amenorrhoea after oral contraceptive treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1973 Jul;49(6):669–679. [PubMed]
  • Gold PW, Gwirtsman H, Avgerinos PC, Nieman LK, Gallucci WT, Kaye W, Jimerson D, Ebert M, Rittmaster R, Loriaux DL, et al. Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in anorexia nervosa. Pathophysiologic mechanisms in underweight and weight-corrected patients. N Engl J Med. 1986 May 22;314(21):1335–1342. [PubMed]
  • Bullen BA, Skrinar GS, Beitins IZ, von Mering G, Turnbull BA, McArthur JW. Induction of menstrual disorders by strenuous exercise in untrained women. N Engl J Med. 1985 May 23;312(21):1349–1353. [PubMed]
  • Shangold MM. Athletic amenorrhea. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Sep;28(3):664–669. [PubMed]
  • Correa H, Jacoby J. Nutrition and fertility: some iconoclastic results. Am J Clin Nutr. 1978 Aug;31(8):1431–1436. [PubMed]
  • van der Walt LA, Wilmsen EN, Jenkins T. Unusual sex hormone patterns among desert-dwelling hunter-gatherers. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1978 Apr;46(4):658–663. [PubMed]
  • Wurtman RJ, Fernstrom JD. Control of brain neurotransmitter synthesis by precursor availability and nutritional state. Biochem Pharmacol. 1976 Aug 1;25(15):1691–1696. [PubMed]
  • MacIndoe JH, Turkington RW. Stimulation of human prolactin secretion by intravenous infusion of L-tryptophan. J Clin Invest. 1973 Aug;52(8):1972–1978. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Crisp AH. Some aspects of the relationship between body weight and sexual behaviour with particular reference to massive obesity and anorexia nervosa. Int J Obes. 1978;2(1):17–32. [PubMed]
  • Newmark SR, Rossini AA, Naftolin FI, Todd R, Rose LI, Cahill GF., Jr Gonadotropin profiles in fed and fasted obese women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jan 1;133(1):75–80. [PubMed]
  • Edman CD, MacDonald PC. Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in ovulatory and anovulator young women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Feb 15;130(4):456–461. [PubMed]
  • MacDonald PC, Edman CD, Hemsell DL, Porter JC, Siiteri PK. Effect of obesity on conversion of plasma androstenedione to estrone in postmenopausal women with and without endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Feb 15;130(4):448–455. [PubMed]
  • Hosseinian AH, Kim MH, Rosenfield RL. Obesity and oligomenorrhea are associated with hyperandrogenism independent of hirsutism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 Apr;42(4):765–769. [PubMed]
  • Thomson JE, Baird SG, Thomson JA. Thyroid function in dietary amenorrhoea. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1977 Nov;7(5):383–388. [PubMed]
  • Wentz AC. Body weight and amenorrhea. Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Oct;56(4):482–487. [PubMed]
  • Vigersky RA, Andersen AE, Thompson RH, Loriaux DL. Hypothalamic dysfunction in secondary amenorrhea associated with simple weight loss. N Engl J Med. 1977 Nov 24;297(21):1141–1145. [PubMed]
  • Graham RL, Grimes DL, Gambrell RD., Jr Amenorrhea secondary to voluntary weight loss. South Med J. 1979 Oct;72(10):1259–1261. [PubMed]
  • McArthur JW, O'Loughlin KM, Beitins IZ, Johnson L, Hourihan J, Alonso C. Endocrine studies during the refeeding of young women with nutritional amenorrhea and infertility. Mayo Clin Proc. 1976 Oct;51(10):607–616. [PubMed]
  • Katz JL, Boyar RM, Roffwarg H, Hellman L, Weiner H. LHRH responsiveness in anorexia nervosa: intactness despite prepubertal circadian LH pattern. Psychosom Med. 1977 Jul-Aug;39(4):241–251. [PubMed]
  • Lev-Ran A. Secondary amenorrhea resulting from uncontrolled weight-reducing diets. Fertil Steril. 1974 May;25(5):459–462. [PubMed]
  • Danowski TS, Livstone E, Gonzales AR, Jung Y, Khurana RC. Fractional and partial hypopituitarism in anorexia nervosa. Hormones. 1972;3(2):105–118. [PubMed]
  • Krieger DT, Allen W, Rizzo F, Krieger HP. Characterization of the normal temporal pattern of plasma corticosteroid levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1971 Feb;32(2):266–284. [PubMed]
  • Warren MP, Jewelewicz R, Dyrenfurth I, Ans R, Khalaf S, Vande Wiele RL. The significance of weight loss in the evaluation of pituitary response to LH-RH in women with secondary amenorrhea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Apr;40(4):601–611. [PubMed]
  • Hurd HP, 2nd, Palumbo PJ, Gharib H. Hypothalamic-endocrine dysfunction in anorexia nervosa. Mayo Clin Proc. 1977 Nov;52(11):711–716. [PubMed]
  • Townsley JD, Rubin EJ, Crystle CD. Evaluation of placental steroid 3-sulfatase and aromatase activities as regulators of estrogen production in human pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1973 Oct 1;117(3):345–350. [PubMed]
  • Hull MG, Murray MA, Franks S, Jacobs HS. Proceedings: Endocrinopathy of weight-recovered anorexia nervosa in women presenting with secondary amenorrhoea. J Endocrinol. 1976 Jun;69(3):43P–44P. [PubMed]
  • Katz JL, Boyar R, Roffwarg H, Hellman L, Weiner H. Weight and circadian luteinizing hormone secretory pattern in anorexia nervosa. Psychosom Med. 1978 Nov;40(7):549–567. [PubMed]
  • Travaglini P, Beck-Peccoz P, Ferrari C, Ambrosi B, Paracchi A, Severgnini A, Spada A, Faglia G. Some aspects of hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1976 Feb;81(2):252–262. [PubMed]
  • Beumont PJ, George GC, Pimstone BL, Vinik AI. Body weight and the pituitary response to hypothalamic releasing hormones in patients with anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 Sep;43(3):487–496. [PubMed]
  • Kalucy RS, Crisp AH, Chard T, McNeilly A, Chen CN, Lacey JH. Nocturnal hormonal profiles in massive obesity, anorexia nervosa and normal females. J Psychosom Res. 1976;20(6):595–604. [PubMed]
  • Boyar RM, Katz J, Finkelstein JW, Kapen S, Weiner H, Weitzman ED, Hellman L. Anorexia nervosa. Immaturity of the 24-hour luteinizing hormone secretory pattern. N Engl J Med. 1974 Oct 24;291(17):861–865. [PubMed]
  • Mecklenburg RS, Loriaux DL, Thompson RH, Andersen AE, Lipsett MB. Hypothalamic dysfunction in patients with anorexia nervosa. Medicine (Baltimore) 1974 Mar;53(2):147–159. [PubMed]
  • Garfinkel PE, Brown GM, Stancer HC, Moldofsky H. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in anorexia nervosa. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1975 Jun;32(6):739–744. [PubMed]
  • Frankel RJ, Jenkins JS. Hypothalamic-pituitary function in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1975 Feb;78(2):209–221. [PubMed]
  • Fishman J, Bradlow HL. Effect of malnutrition on the metabolism of sex hormones in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977 Nov;22(5 Pt 2):721–728. [PubMed]
  • Aro A, Lamberg BA, Pelkonen R. Hypothalamic endocrine dysfunction in anorexia nervosa. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1977 Aug;85(4):673–683. [PubMed]
  • Vigersky RA, Loriaux DL, Andersen AE, Mecklenburg RS, Vaitukaitis JL. Delayed pituitary hormone response to LRF and TRF in patients with anorexia nervosa and with secondary amenorrhea associated with simple weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1976 Oct;43(4):893–900. [PubMed]
  • Baranowska B, Zgliczyński S. Enhanced testosterone in female patients with anorexia nervosa: its normalization after weight gain. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1979 Feb;90(2):328–335. [PubMed]
  • Fishman J, Boyar RM, Hellman L. Influence of body weight on estradiol metabolism in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1975 Nov;41(5):989–991. [PubMed]
  • Adashi EY, Rakoff J, Divers W, Fishman J, Yen SS. The effect of acutely administered 2-hydroxyestrone on the release of gonadotropins and prolactin before and after estrogen priming in hypogonadal women. Life Sci. 1979 Dec 10;25(24-25):2051–2055. [PubMed]
  • Gross HA, Lake CR, Ebert MH, Ziegler MG, Kopin IJ. Catecholamine metabolism in primary anorexia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Dec;49(6):805–809. [PubMed]
  • Baranowska B, Rozbicka G, Jeske W, Abdel-Fattah MH. The role of endogenous opiates in the mechanism of inhibited luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in women with anorexia nervosa: the effect of naloxone on LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and beta-endorphin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1984 Sep;59(3):412–416. [PubMed]
  • Kaye WH, Pickar D, Naber D, Ebert MH. Cerebrospinal fluid opioid activity in anorexia nervosa. Am J Psychiatry. 1982 May;139(5):643–645. [PubMed]
  • Gindoff PR, Ferin M. Endogenous opioid peptides modulate the effect of corticotropin-releasing factor on gonadotropin release in the primate. Endocrinology. 1987 Sep;121(3):837–842. [PubMed]
  • Petraglia F, Vale W, Rivier C. Opioids act centrally to modulate stress-induced decrease in luteinizing hormone in the rat. Endocrinology. 1986 Dec;119(6):2445–2450. [PubMed]
  • Hotta M, Shibasaki T, Masuda A, Imaki T, Demura H, Ling N, Shizume K. The responses of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and cerebrospinal fluid immunoreactive CRH in anorexia nervosa patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Feb;62(2):319–324. [PubMed]
  • Kaye WH, Gwirtsman HE, George DT, Ebert MH, Jimerson DC, Tomai TP, Chrousos GP, Gold PW. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid levels of immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing hormone in anorexia nervosa: relation to state of nutrition, adrenal function, and intensity of depression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1987 Feb;64(2):203–208. [PubMed]
  • Fries H, Nillius SJ, Pettersson F. Epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. II. A retrospective evaluation of etiology with special regard to psychogenic factors and weight loss. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1974 Feb 15;118(4):473–479. [PubMed]
  • DREW FL. The epidemiology of secondary amenorrhea. J Chronic Dis. 1961 Oct;14:396–407. [PubMed]
  • Lachelin GC, Yen SS. Hypothalamic chronic anovulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978 Apr 1;130(7):825–831. [PubMed]
  • Fries H, Nillius SJ. Psychological factors, psychiatric illness and amenorrhoea after oral contraceptive treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1973 Jul;49(6):653–668. [PubMed]
  • Ziporyn T. Latest clue to exercise-induced amenorrhea. JAMA. 1984 Sep 14;252(10):1258–1263. [PubMed]
  • Warren MP, Brooks-Gunn J, Hamilton LH, Warren LF, Hamilton WG. Scoliosis and fractures in young ballet dancers. Relation to delayed menarche and secondary amenorrhea. N Engl J Med. 1986 May 22;314(21):1348–1353. [PubMed]
  • Marcus R, Cann C, Madvig P, Minkoff J, Goddard M, Bayer M, Martin M, Gaudiani L, Haskell W, Genant H. Menstrual function and bone mass in elite women distance runners. Endocrine and metabolic features. Ann Intern Med. 1985 Feb;102(2):158–163. [PubMed]
  • Shangold MM. Athletic amenorrhea. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Sep;28(3):664–669. [PubMed]
  • Shangold MM. Causes, evaluation, and management of athletic oligo-/amenorrhea. Med Clin North Am. 1985 Jan;69(1):83–95. [PubMed]
  • Cumming DC, Vickovic MM, Wall SR, Fluker MR, Belcastro AN. The effect of acute exercise on pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone in women runners. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Nov 1;153(5):482–485. [PubMed]
  • Chang FE, Dodds WG, Sullivan M, Kim MH, Malarkey WB. The acute effects of exercise on prolactin and growth hormone secretion: comparison between sedentary women and women runners with normal and abnormal menstrual cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1986 Mar;62(3):551–556. [PubMed]
  • Russell JB, Mitchell D, Musey PI, Collins DC. The relationship of exercise to anovulatory cycles in female athletes: hormonal and physical characteristics. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Apr;63(4):452–456. [PubMed]
  • Cann CE, Martin MC, Genant HK, Jaffe RB. Decreased spinal mineral content in amenorrheic women. JAMA. 1984 Feb 3;251(5):626–629. [PubMed]
  • Lloyd T, Triantafyllou SJ, Baker ER, Houts PS, Whiteside JA, Kalenak A, Stumpf PG. Women athletes with menstrual irregularity have increased musculoskeletal injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986 Aug;18(4):374–379. [PubMed]
  • Drinkwater BL, Nilson K, Chesnut CH, 3rd, Bremner WJ, Shainholtz S, Southworth MB. Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes. N Engl J Med. 1984 Aug 2;311(5):277–281. [PubMed]
  • Lindberg JS, Fears WB, Hunt MM, Powell MR, Boll D, Wade CE. Exercise-induced amenorrhea and bone density. Ann Intern Med. 1984 Nov;101(5):647–648. [PubMed]

Articles from Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine are provided here courtesy of New York Academy of Medicine


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...