• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Aug 1997; 179(15): 4894–4900.
PMCID: PMC179339

Identification and characterization of an operon in Salmonella typhimurium involved in thiamine biosynthesis.

Abstract

Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is synthesized de novo in Salmonella typhimurium and is a required cofactor for many enzymes in the cell. Five kinase activities have been implicated in TPP synthesis, which involves joining a 4-methyl-5-(beta-hydroxyethyl)thiazole (THZ) moiety and a 4-amino-5-hydroxymethyl-2-methylpyrimidine (HMP) moiety. We report here identification of a 2-gene operon involved in thiamine biosynthesis and present evidence that the genes in this operon, thiMD, encode two previously identified kinases, THZ kinase and HMP phosphate (HMP-P) kinase, respectively. We further show that this operon belongs to the growing class of genes involved in TPP synthesis that are transcriptionally regulated by TPP. Our data are consistent with ThiM being a salvage enzyme and ThiD being a biosynthetic enzyme involved in TPP synthesis, as previously suggested.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (371K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 5;215(3):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Castilho BA, Olfson P, Casadaban MJ. Plasmid insertion mutagenesis and lac gene fusion with mini-mu bacteriophage transposons. J Bacteriol. 1984 May;158(2):488–495. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chan RK, Botstein D, Watanabe T, Ogata Y. Specialized transduction of tetracycline resistance by phage P22 in Salmonella typhimurium. II. Properties of a high-frequency-transducing lysate. Virology. 1972 Dec;50(3):883–898. [PubMed]
  • Chen P, Ailion M, Weyand N, Roth J. The end of the cob operon: evidence that the last gene (cobT) catalyzes synthesis of the lower ligand of vitamin B12, dimethylbenzimidazole. J Bacteriol. 1995 Mar;177(6):1461–1469. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • DeMoll E, Shive W. Determination of the metabolic origin of the sulfur atom in thiamin of Escherichia coli by mass spectrometry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Oct 15;132(1):217–222. [PubMed]
  • Downs DM. Evidence for a new, oxygen-regulated biosynthetic pathway for the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1992 Mar;174(5):1515–1521. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Downs DM, Petersen L. apbA, a new genetic locus involved in thiamine biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1994 Aug;176(16):4858–4864. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Escalante-Semerena JC, Roth JR. Regulation of cobalamin biosynthetic operons in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1987 May;169(5):2251–2258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Estramareix B, Therisod M. La tyrosine, facteur de la biosynthèse du thiazole de la thiamine chez Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1972 Jul 19;273(2):275–282. [PubMed]
  • Imamura N, Nakayama H. thiD locus of Escherichia coli. Experientia. 1981 Dec 15;37(12):1265–1266. [PubMed]
  • Imamura N, Nakayama H. thiK and thiL loci of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1982 Aug;151(2):708–717. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Iwashima A, Takahashi K, Nose Y. Overproduction of hydroxymethylpyrimidine by a thiamine regulatory mutant of Escherichia coli. J Vitaminol (Kyoto) 1971 Mar 10;17(1):43–48. [PubMed]
  • Kawasaki T, Nose Y. Thiamine regulatory mutants in Escherichia coli. J Biochem. 1969 Mar;65(3):417–425. [PubMed]
  • Kleckner N, Bender J, Gottesman S. Uses of transposons with emphasis on Tn10. Methods Enzymol. 1991;204:139–180. [PubMed]
  • Mizote T, Nakayama H. The thiM locus and its relation to phosphorylation of hydroxyethylthiazole in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1989 Jun;171(6):3228–3232. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mizote T, Tsuda M, Nakazawa T, Nakayama H. The thiJ locus and its relation to phosphorylation of hydroxymethylpyrimidine in Escherichia coli. Microbiology. 1996 Oct;142(Pt 10):2969–2974. [PubMed]
  • Nakayama H, Hayashi R. Biosynthetic pathway of thiamine pyrophosphate: a special reference to the thiamine monophosphate-requiring mutant and the thiamine pyrophosphate-requiring mutant of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1972 Dec;112(3):1118–1126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newell PC, Tucker RG. Biosynthesis of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. A new route of pyrimidine biosynthesis involving purine intermediates. Biochem J. 1968 Jan;106(1):279–287. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newell PC, Tucker RG. The control mechanism of thiamine biosynthesis a model for the study of control of converging pathways. Biochem J. 1966 Aug;100(2):517–524. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Newell PC, Tucker RG. Precursors of the pyrimidine moiety of thiamine. Biochem J. 1968 Jan;106(1):271–277. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Nosaka K, Nishimura H, Kawasaki Y, Tsujihara T, Iwashima A. Isolation and characterization of the THI6 gene encoding a bifunctional thiamin-phosphate pyrophosphorylase/hydroxyethylthiazole kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1994 Dec 2;269(48):30510–30516. [PubMed]
  • Petersen L, Downs DM. Mutations in apbC (mrp) prevent function of the alternative pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1996 Oct;178(19):5676–5682. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Petersen L, Enos-Berlage J, Downs DM. Genetic analysis of metabolic crosstalk and its impact on thiamine synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. Genetics. 1996 May;143(1):37–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmieger H. Phage P22-mutants with increased or decreased transduction abilities. Mol Gen Genet. 1972;119(1):75–88. [PubMed]
  • Vander Horn PB, Backstrom AD, Stewart V, Begley TP. Structural genes for thiamine biosynthetic enzymes (thiCEFGH) in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol. 1993 Feb;175(4):982–992. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • VOGEL HJ, BONNER DM. Acetylornithinase of Escherichia coli: partial purification and some properties. J Biol Chem. 1956 Jan;218(1):97–106. [PubMed]
  • Way JC, Davis MA, Morisato D, Roberts DE, Kleckner N. New Tn10 derivatives for transposon mutagenesis and for construction of lacZ operon fusions by transposition. Gene. 1984 Dec;32(3):369–379. [PubMed]
  • Webb E, Claas K, Downs DM. Characterization of thiI, a new gene involved in thiazole biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1997 Jul;179(13):4399–4402. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Webb E, Downs D. Characterization of thiL, encoding thiamin-monophosphate kinase, in Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1997 Jun 20;272(25):15702–15707. [PubMed]
  • Webb E, Febres F, Downs DM. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) negatively regulates transcription of some thi genes of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1996 May;178(9):2533–2538. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zhang Y, Taylor SV, Chiu HJ, Begley TP. Characterization of the Bacillus subtilis thiC operon involved in thiamine biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 1997 May;179(9):3030–3035. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zurlinden A, Schweingruber ME. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and regulation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe thi4, a thiamine biosynthetic gene. J Bacteriol. 1994 Nov;176(21):6631–6635. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...