Logo of moiJournal's HomeManuscript SubmissionAims and ScopeAuthor GuidelinesEditorial BoardHome
Mediators Inflamm. 2003 Apr; 12(2): 59–69.
PMCID: PMC1781596

Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture.


Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (213K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Schäfer T, Riehle A, Wichmann H-E, Ring J. Alternative medicine in allergies - prevalence, patterns of use, and costs. Allergy. 2002 Aug;57(8):694–700. [PubMed]
  • Kaptchuk Ted J. The placebo effect in alternative medicine: can the performance of a healing ritual have clinical significance? Ann Intern Med. 2002 Jun 4;136(11):817–825. [PubMed]
  • Garrelds Ingrid M, Heiligers Jan P C, Van Meeteren Marieke E, Duncker Dirk-Jan G M, Saxena Pramod R, Meijssen Maarten A C, Zijlstra Frederik J. Intestinal blood flow in murine colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium. Dig Dis Sci. 2002 Oct;47(10):2231–2236. [PubMed]
  • Zijlstra FJ, Srivastava ED, Rhodes M, van Dijk AP, Fogg F, Samson HJ, Copeman M, Russell MA, Feyerabend C, Williams GT, et al. Effect of nicotine on rectal mucus and mucosal eicosanoids. Gut. 1994 Feb;35(2):247–251. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zijlstra FJ. Smoking and nicotine in inflammatory bowel disease: good or bad for cytokines? Mediators Inflamm. 1998;7(3):153–155. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kaptchuk Ted J. Acupuncture: theory, efficacy, and practice. Ann Intern Med. 2002 Mar 5;136(5):374–383. [PubMed]
  • Brain SD, Williams TJ, Tippins JR, Morris HR, MacIntyre I. Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a potent vasodilator. Nature. 1985 Jan 3;313(5997):54–56. [PubMed]
  • Brain SD, Newbold P, Kajekar R. Modulation of the release and activity of neuropeptides in the microcirculation. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jul;73(7):995–998. [PubMed]
  • Franco-Cereceda A, Rudehill A, Lundberg JM. Calcitonin gene-related peptide but not substance P mimics capsaicin-induced coronary vasodilation in the pig. Eur J Pharmacol. 1987 Oct 13;142(2):235–243. [PubMed]
  • Brain SD, Williams TJ. Substance P regulates the vasodilator activity of calcitonin gene-related peptide. Nature. 1988 Sep 1;335(6185):73–75. [PubMed]
  • Hu J. Clinical observation on 25 cases of hormone dependent bronchial asthma treated by acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med. 1998 Mar;18(1):27–30. [PubMed]
  • Biernacki W, Peake MD. Acupuncture in treatment of stable asthma. Respir Med. 1998 Sep;92(9):1143–1145. [PubMed]
  • Shapira Michael Y, Berkman Neville, Ben-David Gila, Avital Avraham, Bardach Elat, Breuer Raphael. Short-term acupuncture therapy is of no benefit in patients with moderate persistent asthma. Chest. 2002 May;121(5):1396–1400. [PubMed]
  • Joos S, Schott C, Zou H, Daniel V, Martin E. Immunomodulatory effects of acupuncture in the treatment of allergic asthma: a randomized controlled study. J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Dec;6(6):519–525. [PubMed]
  • Gruber W, Eber E, Malle-Scheid D, Pfleger A, Weinhandl E, Dorfer L, Zach MS. Laser acupuncture in children and adolescents with exercise induced asthma. Thorax. 2002 Mar;57(3):222–225. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kleijnen J, ter Riet G, Knipschild P. Acupuncture and asthma: a review of controlled trials. Thorax. 1991 Nov;46(11):799–802. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Martin J, Donaldson ANA, Villarroel R, Parmar MKB, Ernst E, Higginson IJ. Efficacy of acupuncture in asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis of published data from 11 randomised controlled trials. Eur Respir J. 2002 Oct;20(4):846–852. [PubMed]
  • Steurer-Stey Claudia, Russi Erich W, Steurer Johann. Complementary and alternative medicine in asthma: do they work? Swiss Med Wkly. 2002 Jun 29;132(25-26):338–344. [PubMed]
  • Blanc PD, Trupin L, Earnest G, Katz PP, Yelin EH, Eisner MD. Alternative therapies among adults with a reported diagnosis of asthma or rhinosinusitis : data from a population-based survey. Chest. 2001 Nov;120(5):1461–1467. [PubMed]
  • Pothman R, Yeh HL. The effects of treatment with antibiotics, laser and acupuncture upon chronic maxillary sinusitis in children. Am J Chin Med. 1982;10(1-4):55–58. [PubMed]
  • Xue Charlie Changli, English Robert, Zhang Jerry Jiansheng, Da Costa Cliff, Li Chun Guang. Effect of acupuncture in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Chin Med. 2002;30(1):1–11. [PubMed]
  • Wolkenstein E, Horak F. Protektiver Effekt von Akupunktur gegenüber einer mittels Allergenprovokation induzierten Rhinitis. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1998;148(19):450–453. [PubMed]
  • Zhou RL, Zhang JC. [Desensitive treatment with positive allergens in acupoints of the head for allergic rhinitis and its mechanism]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Dec;11(12):721–708. [PubMed]
  • Yang J, Zhang Q. Twenty-three cases of atrophic rhinitis treated by deep puncture at three points in the nasal region. J Tradit Chin Med. 1999 Jun;19(2):115–117. [PubMed]
  • Smart HL, Mayberry JF, Atkinson M. Alternative medicine consultations and remedies in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Gut. 1986 Jul;27(7):826–828. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ballard AE. Traditional and complementary therapies used together in the treatment, relief and control of Chron's disease and polyarthritis. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 1996 Apr;2(2):52–54. [PubMed]
  • Yang C, Yan H. Observation of the efficacy of acupuncture and moxibustion in 62 cases of chronic colitis. J Tradit Chin Med. 1999 Jun;19(2):111–114. [PubMed]
  • Man SC, Baragar FD. Preliminary clinical study of acupuncture in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1974 Mar;1(1):126–129. [PubMed]
  • Xiao J, Liu X, Sun L, Ying S, Zhang Z, Li Q, Li H, Zhang Z, Jin B, Wang S. [Experimental study on the influence of acupuncture and moxibustion on interleukin-2 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1992;17(2):126–132. [PubMed]
  • Liu X, Sun L, Xiao J, Yin S, Liu C, Li Q, Li H, Jin B. Effect of acupuncture and point-injection treatment on immunologic function in rheumatoid arthritis. J Tradit Chin Med. 1993 Sep;13(3):174–178. [PubMed]
  • David J, Townsend S, Sathanathan R, Kriss S, Doré CJ. The effect of acupuncture on patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999 Sep;38(9):864–869. [PubMed]
  • Berman BM, Swyers JP, Ezzo J. The evidence for acupuncture as a treatment for rheumatologic conditions. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):103–x. [PubMed]
  • Molsberger A, Hille E. The analgesic effect of acupuncture in chronic tennis elbow pain. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Dec;33(12):1162–1165. [PubMed]
  • Haker E, Lundeberg T. Acupuncture treatment in epicondylalgia: a comparative study of two acupuncture techniques. Clin J Pain. 1990 Sep;6(3):221–226. [PubMed]
  • Haker E, Lundeberg T. Laser treatment applied to acupuncture points in lateral humeral epicondylalgia. A double-blind study. Pain. 1990 Nov;43(2):243–247. [PubMed]
  • Berlin J, Erdman W, David E. Psychosomatic correlations in chronic pain patients using electroacupuncture. Am J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):85–87. [PubMed]
  • Fink M, Wolkenstein E, Karst M, Gehrke A. Acupuncture in chronic epicondylitis: a randomized controlled trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2002 Feb;41(2):205–209. [PubMed]
  • Huygen FJ, de Bruijn AG, Klein J, Zijlstra FJ. Neuroimmune alterations in the complex regional pain syndrome. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 Oct 19;429(1-3):101–113. [PubMed]
  • Huygen Frank J P M, De Bruijn Anke G J, De Bruin Martha T, Groeneweg J George, Klein Jan, Zijlstra Freek J. Evidence for local inflammation in complex regional pain syndrome type 1. Mediators Inflamm. 2002 Feb;11(1):47–51. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leo KC. Use of electrical stimulation at acupuncture points for the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in a child. A case report. Phys Ther. 1983 Jun;63(6):957–959. [PubMed]
  • Hill SD, Lin MS, Chandler PJ., Jr Reflex sympathetic dystrophy and electroacupuncture. Tex Med. 1991 Jul;87(7):76–81. [PubMed]
  • Chan CS, Chow SP. Electroacupuncture in the treatment of post-traumatic sympathetic dystrophy (Sudeck's atrophy). Br J Anaesth. 1981 Aug;53(8):899–902. [PubMed]
  • Korpan MI, Dezu Y, Schneider B, Leitha T, Fialka-Moser V. Acupuncture in the treatment of posttraumatic pain syndrome. Acta Orthop Belg. 1999 Jun;65(2):197–201. [PubMed]
  • Cheng L, Wu K, Qie Z. [Role of "qi" in reaching affected area using acupuncture in "promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis"]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990 Apr;10(4):209–196. [PubMed]
  • Schoen AM. Acupuncture for musculoskeletal disorders. Probl Vet Med. 1992 Mar;4(1):88–97. [PubMed]
  • Williamson DJ, Hargreaves RJ. Neurogenic inflammation in the context of migraine. Microsc Res Tech. 2001 May 1;53(3):167–178. [PubMed]
  • Manias P, Tagaris G, Karageorgiou K. Acupuncture in headache: a critical review. Clin J Pain. 2000 Dec;16(4):334–339. [PubMed]
  • Blom M, Lundeberg T, Dawidson I, Angmar-Månsson B. Effects on local blood flux of acupuncture stimulation used to treat xerostomia in patients suffering from Sjögren's syndrome. J Oral Rehabil. 1993 Sep;20(5):541–548. [PubMed]
  • Jansen G, Lundeberg T, Kjartansson J, Samuelson UE. Acupuncture and sensory neuropeptides increase cutaneous blood flow in rats. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Feb 27;97(3):305–309. [PubMed]
  • Rogers PA, Schoen AM, Limehouse J. Acupuncture for immune-mediated disorders. Literature review and clinical applications. Probl Vet Med. 1992 Mar;4(1):162–193. [PubMed]
  • Doggrell SA. Migraine and beyond: cardiovascular therapeutic potential for CGRP modulators. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Jun;10(6):1131–1138. [PubMed]
  • Calder JS, Holten I, McAllister RM. Evidence for immune system involvement in reflex sympathetic dystrophy. J Hand Surg Br. 1998 Apr;23(2):147–150. [PubMed]
  • Blair SJ, Chinthagada M, Hoppenstehdt D, Kijowski R, Fareed J. Role of neuropeptides in pathogenesis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Acta Orthop Belg. 1998 Dec;64(4):448–451. [PubMed]
  • Levine JD, Clark R, Devor M, Helms C, Moskowitz MA, Basbaum AI. Intraneuronal substance P contributes to the severity of experimental arthritis. Science. 1984 Nov 2;226(4674):547–549. [PubMed]
  • Newby DE, Sciberras DG, Mendel CM, Gertz BJ, Boon NA, Webb DJ. Intra-arterial substance P mediated vasodilatation in the human forearm: pharmacology, reproducibility and tolerability. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 May;43(5):493–499. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kashiba H, Ueda Y. Acupuncture to the skin induces release of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide from peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons in the rat. Am J Chin Med. 1991;19(3-4):189–197. [PubMed]
  • Bucinskaite V, Lundeberg T, Stenfors C, Ekblom A, Dahlin L, Theodorsson E. Effects of electro-acupuncture and physical exercise on regional concentrations of neuropeptides in rat brain. Brain Res. 1994 Dec 12;666(1):128–132. [PubMed]
  • Ceccherelli F, Gagliardi G, Matterazzo G, Visentin R, Giron G. The role of manual acupuncture and morphine administration on the modulation of capsaicin-induced edema in rat paw. A blind controlled study. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1996 Jan-Mar;21(1):7–14. [PubMed]
  • Chan WW, Weissensteiner H, Rausch WD, Chen KY, Wu LS, Lin JH. Comparison of substance P concentration in acupuncture points in different tissues in dogs. Am J Chin Med. 1998;26(1):13–18. [PubMed]
  • Yonehara N. Influence of serotonin receptor antagonists on substance P and serotonin release evoked by tooth pulp stimulation with electro-acupuncture in the trigeminal nucleus cudalis of the rabbit. Neurosci Res. 2001 May;40(1):45–51. [PubMed]
  • Ma H, Jiang E, Zhao X. [The effect of acupuncture on the content of substance P in serum of gravida during delivery]. Zhen Ci Yan Jiu. 1992;17(1):65–66. [PubMed]
  • Sprott H, Franke S, Kluge H, Hein G. Pain treatment of fibromyalgia by acupuncture. Rheumatol Int. 1998;18(1):35–36. [PubMed]
  • Dawidson I, Angmar-Månsson B, Blom M, Theodorsson E, Lundeberg T. The influence of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on the release of neuropeptides in the saliva of healthy subjects. Life Sci. 1998;63(8):659–674. [PubMed]
  • Fu H. What is the material base of acupuncture? The nerves! Med Hypotheses. 2000 Mar;54(3):358–359. [PubMed]
  • Cao Xiaoding. Scientific bases of acupuncture analgesia. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2002;27(1):1–14. [PubMed]
  • Skarda Roman T, Tejwani Gopi A, Muir William W., 3rd Cutaneous analgesia, hemodynamic and respiratory effects, and beta-endorphin concentration in spinal fluid and plasma of horses after acupuncture and electroacupuncture. Am J Vet Res. 2002 Oct;63(10):1435–1442. [PubMed]
  • Tempfer C, Zeisler H, Heinzl H, Hefler L, Husslein P, Kainz C. Influence of acupuncture on maternal serum levels of interleukin-8, prostaglandin F2alpha, and beta-endorphin: a matched pair study. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Aug;92(2):245–248. [PubMed]
  • Petti F, Bangrazi A, Liguori A, Reale G, Ippoliti F. Effects of acupuncture on immune response related to opioid-like peptides. J Tradit Chin Med. 1998 Mar;18(1):55–63. [PubMed]
  • Bonta Ivan L. Acupuncture beyond the endorphin concept? Med Hypotheses. 2002 Mar;58(3):221–224. [PubMed]
  • O'Garra Anne, Barrat Franck J. In vitro generation of IL-10-producing regulatory CD4+ T cells is induced by immunosuppressive drugs and inhibited by Th1- and Th2-inducing cytokines. Immunol Lett. 2003 Jan 22;85(2):135–139. [PubMed]
  • Jeong Hyun-Ja, Kim Bong-Suk, Oh Jeong Guk, Kim Kyung-Suk, Kim Hyung-Min. Regulatory effect of cytokine production in asthma patients by SOOJI CHIM (Koryo Hand Acupuncture Therapy). Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2002 May;24(2):265–274. [PubMed]
  • Petti Filomena Bangrazi, Liguori Aldo, Ippoliti Flora. Study on cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 in patients of chronic allergic rhinitis treated with acupuncture. J Tradit Chin Med. 2002 Jun;22(2):104–111. [PubMed]
  • Wu Huan-Gan, Zhou Li-Bin, Pan Ying-Ying, Huang Cheng, Chen Han-Ping, Shi Zheng, Hua Xue-Gui. Study of the mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion treatment for ulcerative colitis rats in view of the gene expression of cytokines. World J Gastroenterol. 1999 Dec;5(6):515–517. [PubMed]
  • Loaiza Lázaro A, Yamaguchi Shinjiro, Ito Momoyo, Ohshima Norio. Electro-acupuncture stimulation to muscle afferents in anesthetized rats modulates the blood flow to the knee joint through autonomic reflexes and nitric oxide. Auton Neurosci. 2002 May 31;97(2):103–109. [PubMed]
  • Zhao P, Huang ZN, Chen G, Cheng JS. Electro-acupuncture attenuates nitric oxide release from rat striatum after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2000;25(2):101–107. [PubMed]
  • Yang R, Huang ZN, Cheng JS. Anticonvulsion effect of acupuncture might be related to the decrease of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases. Acupunct Electrother Res. 2000;25(3-4):137–143. [PubMed]
  • Cirino Giuseppe, Fiorucci Stefano, Sessa William C. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase: the Cinderella of inflammation? Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2003 Feb;24(2):91–95. [PubMed]
  • Streitberger K, Kleinhenz J. Introducing a placebo needle into acupuncture research. Lancet. 1998 Aug 1;352(9125):364–365. [PubMed]
  • Irnich D, Behrens N, Molzen H, König A, Gleditsch J, Krauss M, Natalis M, Senn E, Beyer A, Schöps P. Randomised trial of acupuncture compared with conventional massage and "sham" laser acupuncture for treatment of chronic neck pain. BMJ. 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1574–1578. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wu MT, Hsieh JC, Xiong J, Yang CF, Pan HB, Chen YC, Tsai G, Rosen BR, Kwong KK. Central nervous pathway for acupuncture stimulation: localization of processing with functional MR imaging of the brain--preliminary experience. Radiology. 1999 Jul;212(1):133–141. [PubMed]
  • White AR, Filshie J, Cummings TM. Clinical trials of acupuncture: consensus recommendations for optimal treatment, sham controls and blinding. Complement Ther Med. 2001 Dec;9(4):237–245. [PubMed]
  • Birch S, Hammerschlag R, Berman BM. Acupuncture in the treatment of pain. J Altern Complement Med. 1996 Spring;2(1):101–124. [PubMed]
  • Birch S. Credibility of treatment in controlled trials of acupuncture. J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Winter;3(4):315–321. [PubMed]
  • Moher D, Schulz KF, Altman DG. The CONSORT statement: revised recommendations for improving the quality of reports of parallel-group randomised trials. Lancet. 2001 Apr 14;357(9263):1191–1194. [PubMed]
  • MacPherson Hugh, White Adrian, Cummings Mike, Jobst Kim, Rose Ken, Niemtzow Richard. Standards for reporting interventions in controlled trials of acupuncture: The STRICTA recommendations. STandards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trails of Acupuncture. Acupunct Med. 2002 Mar;20(1):22–25. [PubMed]
  • van Houwelingen Anneke H, Kool Mirjam, de Jager Saskia C A, Redegeld Frank A M, van Heuven-Nolsen Dicky, Kraneveld Aletta D, Nijkamp Frans P. Mast cell-derived TNF-alpha primes sensory nerve endings in a pulmonary hypersensitivity reaction. J Immunol. 2002 May 15;168(10):5297–5302. [PubMed]
  • Coleman JW. Nitric oxide: a regulator of mast cell activation and mast cell-mediated inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2002 Jul;129(1):4–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brain SD, Hughes SR, Cambridge H, O'Driscoll G. The contribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to neurogenic vasodilator responses. Agents Actions. 1993;38(Spec No):C19–C21. [PubMed]
  • Towler PK, Bennett GS, Moore PK, Brain SD. Neurogenic oedema and vasodilatation: effect of a selective neuronal NO inhibitor. Neuroreport. 1998 May 11;9(7):1513–1518. [PubMed]
  • Brian JE, Jr, Faraci FM, Moore SA. COX-2-dependent delayed dilatation of cerebral arterioles in response to bradykinin. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 May;280(5):H2023–H2029. [PubMed]
  • Zhang L, Hoff AO, Wimalawansa SJ, Cote GJ, Gagel RF, Westlund KN. Arthritic calcitonin/alpha calcitonin gene-related peptide knockout mice have reduced nociceptive hypersensitivity. Pain. 2001 Jan;89(2-3):265–273. [PubMed]
  • Tanaka E, Uchiyama S, Nakano S. Effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide and vasoactive intestinal peptide on nicotine-induced sweating in man. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1990 Jul;30(3):265–268. [PubMed]
  • Kumazawa K, Sobue G, Mitsuma T, Ogawa T. Modulatory effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P on human cholinergic sweat secretion. Clin Auton Res. 1994 Dec;4(6):319–322. [PubMed]
  • Kumazawa K, Sobue G, Mitsuma T, Sugenoya J, Ogawa T. Impairment of calcitonin gene-related peptide-induced potentiation of cholinergic sweat secretion in patients with multiple system atrophy. Clin Auton Res. 1997 Apr;7(2):77–80. [PubMed]
  • Stones RW, Thomas DC, Beard RW. Suprasensitivity to calcitonin gene-related peptide but not vasoactive intestinal peptide in women with chronic pelvic pain. Clin Auton Res. 1992 Oct;2(5):343–348. [PubMed]
  • Noguchi M, Ikarashi Y, Yuzurihara M, Mizoguchi K, Kurauchi K, Chen J-T, Ishige A. Up-regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors underlying elevation of skin temperature in ovariectomized rats. J Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;175(1):177–183. [PubMed]
  • Noguchi M, Yuzurihara M, Ikarashi Y. Effects of the vasoactive neuropeptides calcitonin gene-related peptide, substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on skin temperature in ovariectomized rats. Neuropeptides. 2002 Oct;36(5):327–332. [PubMed]
  • Spetz AC, Pettersson B, Varenhorst E, Theodorsson E, Thorell LH, Hammar M. Momentary increase in plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide is involved in hot flashes in men treated with castration for carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol. 2001 Nov;166(5):1720–1723. [PubMed]
  • Kinart Chad M, Cuppett Marchell M, Berg Kris. Prevalence of migraines in NCAA division I male and female basketball players. National Collegiate Athletic Association. Headache. 2002 Jul-Aug;42(7):620–629. [PubMed]
  • Lam N, Thurston A. Association of obesity, gender, age and occupation with carpal tunnel syndrome. Aust N Z J Surg. 1998 Mar;68(3):190–193. [PubMed]
  • Chesterton Linda S, Barlas Panos, Foster Nadine E, Baxter G David, Wright Christine C. Gender differences in pressure pain threshold in healthy humans. Pain. 2003 Feb;101(3):259–266. [PubMed]
  • Rumsfield JA, West DP. Topical capsaicin in dermatologic and peripheral pain disorders. DICP. 1991 Apr;25(4):381–387. [PubMed]
  • Ribbers GM, Stam HJ. Complex regional pain syndrome type I treated with topical capsaicin: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Jun;82(6):851–852. [PubMed]
  • Gerth Van Wijk R, Terreehorst IT, Mulder PG, Garrelds IM, Blom HM, Popering S. Intranasal capsaicin is lacking therapeutic effect in perennial allergic rhinitis to house dust mite. A placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000 Dec;30(12):1792–1798. [PubMed]
  • Marsh D, Dickenson A, Hatch D, Fitzgerald M. Epidural opioid analgesia in infant rats II: responses to carrageenan and capsaicin. Pain. 1999 Jul;82(1):33–38. [PubMed]
  • Hua XY, Chen P, Hwang J, Yaksh TL. Antinociception induced by civamide, an orally active capsaicin analogue. Pain. 1997 Jul;71(3):313–322. [PubMed]
  • Diamond S, Freitag F, Phillips SB, Bernstein JE, Saper JR. Intranasal civamide for the acute treatment of migraine headache. Cephalalgia. 2000 Jul;20(6):597–602. [PubMed]
  • Saper Joel R, Klapper Jack, Mathew Ninan T, Rapoport Alan, Phillips Scott B, Bernstein Joel E. Intranasal civamide for the treatment of episodic cluster headaches. Arch Neurol. 2002 Jun;59(6):990–994. [PubMed]
  • Bhardwaj RS, Schwarz A, Becher E, Mahnke K, Aragane Y, Schwarz T, Luger TA. Pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides induce IL-10 production in human monocytes. J Immunol. 1996 Apr 1;156(7):2517–2521. [PubMed]
  • Hosoi J, Ozawa H, Granstein RD. beta-Endorphin binding and regulation of cytokine expression in Langerhans cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Oct 20;885:405–413. [PubMed]
  • Molina PE. Opiate modulation of hemodynamic, hormonal, and cytokine responses to hemorrhage. Shock. 2001 Jun;15(6):471–478. [PubMed]
  • Wallengren J. Vasoactive peptides in the skin. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 1997 Aug;2(1):49–55. [PubMed]

Articles from Mediators of Inflammation are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Publishing Corporation


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    NCBI Bookshelf books that cite the current articles.
  • Compound
    PubChem chemical compound records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records. Multiple substance records may contribute to the PubChem compound record.
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem chemical substance records that cite the current articles. These references are taken from those provided on submitted PubChem chemical substance records.

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...