• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Apr 1996; 178(8): 2238–2244.
PMCID: PMC177931

Production of actinorhodin-related "blue pigments" by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).


The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the "blue pigment" produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or trace elements), and also during growth cessation caused by a relatively low medium pH, blue pigment production was initiated but the pigment and its location varied. At pH 4.5 to 5.5, significant formation of actinorhodin occurred and was located exclusively intracellularly. At pH 6.0 to 7.5 a different blue pigment was produced intracellularly as well as extracellularly. It was purified and identified as gamma-actinorhodin (the lactone form of actinorhodin). Analysis of act mutants of S. coelicolor A3(2) confirmed that both pigments are derived from the act biosynthetic pathway. Mutants with lesions in actII-ORF2, actII-ORF3, or actVA-ORF1, previously implicated or suggested to be involved in actinorhodin export, were impaired in production of gamma-actinorhodin, suggesting that synthesis of gamma-actinorhodin from actinorhodin is coupled to its export from the cell. However, effects on the level of actinorhodin production were also found in some mutants.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (291K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Abbas AS, Edwards C. Effects of Metals on Streptomyces coelicolor Growth and Actinorhodin Production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Mar;56(3):675–680. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Adamidis T, Champness W. Genetic analysis of absB, a Streptomyces coelicolor locus involved in global antibiotic regulation. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jul;174(14):4622–4628. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Adamidis T, Riggle P, Champness W. Mutations in a new Streptomyces coelicolor locus which globally block antibiotic biosynthesis but not sporulation. J Bacteriol. 1990 Jun;172(6):2962–2969. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Brockmann H, Christiansen P. Actinomycetenfarbstoffe. XI. Phenocyclinon. Chem Ber. 1970;103(3):708–717. [PubMed]
  • Caballero JL, Malpartida F, Hopwood DA. Transcriptional organization and regulation of an antibiotic export complex in the producing Streptomyces culture. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 Sep;228(3):372–380. [PubMed]
  • Caballero JL, Martinez E, Malpartida F, Hopwood DA. Organisation and functions of the actVA region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor. Mol Gen Genet. 1991 Dec;230(3):401–412. [PubMed]
  • Doull JL, Vining LC. Nutritional control of actinorhodin production by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2): suppressive effects of nitrogen and phosphate. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1990 Jan;32(4):449–454. [PubMed]
  • ERIKSON D. Loss of aerial mycelium and other changes in Streptomycete development due to physical variations of cultural conditions. J Gen Microbiol. 1955 Aug;13(1):136–148. [PubMed]
  • Fernández-Moreno MA, Caballero JL, Hopwood DA, Malpartida F. The act cluster contains regulatory and antibiotic export genes, direct targets for translational control by the bldA tRNA gene of Streptomyces. Cell. 1991 Aug 23;66(4):769–780. [PubMed]
  • Fernández-Moreno MA, Martínez E, Boto L, Hopwood DA, Malpartida F. Nucleotide sequence and deduced functions of a set of cotranscribed genes of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) including the polyketide synthase for the antibiotic actinorhodin. J Biol Chem. 1992 Sep 25;267(27):19278–19290. [PubMed]
  • Fernández-Moreno MA, Martínez E, Caballero JL, Ichinose K, Hopwood DA, Malpartida F. DNA sequence and functions of the actVI region of the actinorhodin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 7;269(40):24854–24863. [PubMed]
  • Gramajo HC, Takano E, Bibb MJ. Stationary-phase production of the antibiotic actinorhodin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is transcriptionally regulated. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Mar;7(6):837–845. [PubMed]
  • Hallam SE, Malpartida F, Hopwood DA. Nucleotide sequence, transcription and deduced function of a gene involved in polyketide antibiotic synthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor. Gene. 1988 Dec 30;74(2):305–320. [PubMed]
  • Hoeksema H, Krueger WC. Kalafungin. II. Chemical transformations and the absolute configuration. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1976 Jul;29(7):704–709. [PubMed]
  • Kendrew SG, Harding SE, Hopwood DA, Marsh EN. Identification of a flavin:NADH oxidoreductase involved in the biosynthesis of actinorhodin. Purification and characterization of the recombinant enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jul 21;270(29):17339–17343. [PubMed]
  • Khosla C, Ebert-Khosla S, Hopwood DA. Targeted gene replacements in a Streptomyces polyketide synthase gene cluster: role for the acyl carrier protein. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Nov;6(21):3237–3249. [PubMed]
  • Malpartida F, Hopwood DA. Molecular cloning of the whole biosynthetic pathway of a Streptomyces antibiotic and its expression in a heterologous host. Nature. 309(5967):462–464. [PubMed]
  • Malpartida F, Hopwood DA. Physical and genetic characterisation of the gene cluster for the antibiotic actinorhodin in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Oct;205(1):66–73. [PubMed]
  • Omura S, Tanaka H, Koyama Y, Oiwa R, Katagiri M. Letter: Nanaomycins A and B, new antibiotics produced by a strain of Streptomyces. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1974 May;27(5):363–365. [PubMed]
  • Omura S, Tanaka H, Minami S, Takahashi I. Biosynthesis of nanaomycin. II. Purification and properties of nanaomycin D reductase involved in the formation of nanaomycin A from nanaomycin D1. J Biochem. 1981 Aug;90(2):355–362. [PubMed]
  • Rudd BA, Hopwood DA. Genetics of actinorhodin biosynthesis by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). J Gen Microbiol. 1979 Sep;114(1):35–43. [PubMed]
  • Strauch E, Takano E, Baylis HA, Bibb MJ. The stringent response in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Mol Microbiol. 1991 Feb;5(2):289–298. [PubMed]
  • Tashima Y, Yoshimura N. Control of rabbit liver fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase activity by magnesium ions. J Biochem. 1975 Dec;78(6):1161–1169. [PubMed]
  • Tsao SW, Rudd BA, He XG, Chang CJ, Floss HG. Identification of a red pigment from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as a mixture of prodigiosin derivatives. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1985 Jan;38(1):128–131. [PubMed]
  • Wright LF, Hopwood DA. Actinorhodin is a chromosomally-determined antibiotic in Streptomyces coelicolar A3(2). J Gen Microbiol. 1976 Oct;96(2):289–297. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Conserved Domains
    Conserved Domains
    Link to related CDD entry
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links
  • Taxonomy
    Related taxonomy entry
  • Taxonomy Tree
    Taxonomy Tree

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...