• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Aug 1995; 177(16): 4619–4627.
PMCID: PMC177225

The Bacillus subtilis SinR protein is a repressor of the key sporulation gene spo0A.


SinR is a pleiotropic DNA binding protein that is essential for the late-growth processes of competence and motility in Bacillus subtilis and is also a repressor of others, e.g., sporulation and subtilisin synthesis. In this report, we show that SinR, in addition to being an inhibitor of sporulation stage II gene expression, is a repressor of the key early sporulation gene spo0A. The sporulation-specific rise in spo0A expression at time zero is absent in a SinR-overproducing strain and is much higher than normal in strains with a disrupted sinR gene. This effect is direct, since SinR binds specifically to spo0A in vitro, in a region overlapping the -10 region of the sporulation-specific Ps promoter that is recognized by E-sigma H polymerase. Methyl interference and site-directed mutagenesis studies have identified guanine residues that are important for SinR recognition of this DNA sequence. Finally, we present evidence that SinR controls sporulation through several independent genes, i.e., sp0A, spoIIA, and possibly spoIIG and spoIIE.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (972K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anagnostopoulos C, Spizizen J. REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSFORMATION IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS. J Bacteriol. 1961 May;81(5):741–746. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bai U, Mandic-Mulec I, Smith I. SinI modulates the activity of SinR, a developmental switch protein of Bacillus subtilis, by protein-protein interaction. Genes Dev. 1993 Jan;7(1):139–148. [PubMed]
  • Burbulys D, Trach KA, Hoch JA. Initiation of sporulation in B. subtilis is controlled by a multicomponent phosphorelay. Cell. 1991 Feb 8;64(3):545–552. [PubMed]
  • Carter HL, 3rd, Moran CP., Jr New RNA polymerase sigma factor under spo0 control in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Dec;83(24):9438–9442. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chibazakura T, Kawamura F, Takahashi H. Differential regulation of spo0A transcription in Bacillus subtilis: glucose represses promoter switching at the initiation of sporulation. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(8):2625–2632. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dubnau EJ, Cabane K, Smith I. Regulation of spo0H, an early sporulation gene in bacilli. J Bacteriol. 1987 Mar;169(3):1182–1191. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaur NK, Cabane K, Smith I. Structure and expression of the Bacillus subtilis sin operon. J Bacteriol. 1988 Mar;170(3):1046–1053. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaur NK, Dubnau E, Smith I. Characterization of a cloned Bacillus subtilis gene that inhibits sporulation in multiple copies. J Bacteriol. 1986 Nov;168(2):860–869. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gaur NK, Oppenheim J, Smith I. The Bacillus subtilis sin gene, a regulator of alternate developmental processes, codes for a DNA-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(2):678–686. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Gryczan TJ, Hahn J, Contente S, Dubnau D. Replication and incompatibility properties of plasmid pE194 in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1982 Nov;152(2):722–735. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Henner DJ. Inducible expression of regulatory genes in Bacillus subtilis. Methods Enzymol. 1990;185:223–228. [PubMed]
  • Ireton K, Grossman AD. Coupling between gene expression and DNA synthesis early during development in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Sep 15;89(18):8808–8812. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ireton K, Jin S, Grossman AD, Sonenshein AL. Krebs cycle function is required for activation of the Spo0A transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28;92(7):2845–2849. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Johnson AD, Poteete AR, Lauer G, Sauer RT, Ackers GK, Ptashne M. lambda Repressor and cro--components of an efficient molecular switch. Nature. 1981 Nov 19;294(5838):217–223. [PubMed]
  • LeDeaux JR, Grossman AD. Isolation and characterization of kinC, a gene that encodes a sensor kinase homologous to the sporulation sensor kinases KinA and KinB in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):166–175. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Louie P, Lee A, Stansmore K, Grant R, Ginther C, Leighton T. Roles of rpoD, spoIIF, spoIIJ, spoIIN, and sin in regulation of Bacillus subtilis stage II sporulation-specific transcription. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jun;174(11):3570–3576. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Magnuson R, Solomon J, Grossman AD. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a competence pheromone from B. subtilis. Cell. 1994 Apr 22;77(2):207–216. [PubMed]
  • Mandic-Mulec I, Gaur N, Bai U, Smith I. Sin, a stage-specific repressor of cellular differentiation. J Bacteriol. 1992 Jun;174(11):3561–3569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Meyer BJ, Maurer R, Ptashne M. Gene regulation at the right operator (OR) of bacteriophage lambda. II. OR1, OR2, and OR3: their roles in mediating the effects of repressor and cro. J Mol Biol. 1980 May 15;139(2):163–194. [PubMed]
  • Ohlsen KL, Grimsley JK, Hoch JA. Deactivation of the sporulation transcription factor Spo0A by the Spo0E protein phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Mar 1;91(5):1756–1760. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Perego M, Hanstein C, Welsh KM, Djavakhishvili T, Glaser P, Hoch JA. Multiple protein-aspartate phosphatases provide a mechanism for the integration of diverse signals in the control of development in B. subtilis. Cell. 1994 Dec 16;79(6):1047–1055. [PubMed]
  • Perego M, Higgins CF, Pearce SR, Gallagher MP, Hoch JA. The oligopeptide transport system of Bacillus subtilis plays a role in the initiation of sporulation. Mol Microbiol. 1991 Jan;5(1):173–185. [PubMed]
  • Predich M, Nair G, Smith I. Bacillus subtilis early sporulation genes kinA, spo0F, and spo0A are transcribed by the RNA polymerase containing sigma H. J Bacteriol. 1992 May;174(9):2771–2778. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Robertson JB, Gocht M, Marahiel MA, Zuber P. AbrB, a regulator of gene expression in Bacillus, interacts with the transcription initiation regions of a sporulation gene and an antibiotic biosynthesis gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov;86(21):8457–8461. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rudner DZ, LeDeaux JR, Ireton K, Grossman AD. The spo0K locus of Bacillus subtilis is homologous to the oligopeptide permease locus and is required for sporulation and competence. J Bacteriol. 1991 Feb;173(4):1388–1398. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sekiguchi J, Ezaki B, Kodama K, Akamatsu T. Molecular cloning of a gene affecting the autolysin level and flagellation in Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1988 Jun;134(6):1611–1621. [PubMed]
  • Siranosian KJ, Grossman AD. Activation of spo0A transcription by sigma H is necessary for sporulation but not for competence in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;176(12):3812–3815. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stock JB, Ninfa AJ, Stock AM. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria. Microbiol Rev. 1989 Dec;53(4):450–490. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strauch M, Webb V, Spiegelman G, Hoch JA. The SpoOA protein of Bacillus subtilis is a repressor of the abrB gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Mar;87(5):1801–1805. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strauch MA, Trach KA, Day J, Hoch JA. Spo0A activates and represses its own synthesis by binding at its dual promoters. Biochimie. 1992 Jul-Aug;74(7-8):619–626. [PubMed]
  • Weir J, Predich M, Dubnau E, Nair G, Smith I. Regulation of spo0H, a gene coding for the Bacillus subtilis sigma H factor. J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(2):521–529. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...