Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. 1995 May; 177(9): 2403–2407.
PMCID: PMC176898

Salt stress is an environmental signal affecting degradative enzyme synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.


Growth under conditions of salt stress has important effects on the synthesis of degradative enzymes in Bacillus subtilis. Salt stress strongly stimulates the expression of sacB, encoding levansucrase (about ninefold), and downregulates the expression of aprE, encoding alkaline protease (about sixfold). It is suggested that the DegS-DegU two-component system is involved in sensing salt stress. Moreover, it has been shown that the level of sacB expression strongly depends on the growth conditions; its expression level is about eightfold higher in cells grown on agar plates than in cells grown in liquid medium.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (209K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Davies DG, Geesey GG. Regulation of the alginate biosynthesis gene algC in Pseudomonas aeruginosa during biofilm development in continuous culture. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Mar;61(3):860–867. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Amory A, Kunst F, Aubert E, Klier A, Rapoport G. Characterization of the sacQ genes from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jan;169(1):324–333. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boch J, Kempf B, Bremer E. Osmoregulation in Bacillus subtilis: synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenously provided choline. J Bacteriol. 1994 Sep;176(17):5364–5371. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Boylan SA, Redfield AR, Brody MS, Price CW. Stress-induced activation of the sigma B transcription factor of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1993 Dec;175(24):7931–7937. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chang C, Meyerowitz EM. Eukaryotes have "two-component" signal transducers. Res Microbiol. 1994 Jun-Aug;145(5-6):481–486. [PubMed]
  • D'Souza C, Nakano MM, Zuber P. Identification of comS, a gene of the srfA operon that regulates the establishment of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Sep 27;91(20):9397–9401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dubnau D. Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. Microbiol Rev. 1991 Sep;55(3):395–424. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dubnau D, Hahn J, Roggiani M, Piazza F, Weinrauch Y. Two-component regulators and genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. Res Microbiol. 1994 Jun-Aug;145(5-6):403–411. [PubMed]
  • Evans E, Brown MR, Gilbert P. Iron chelator, exopolysaccharide and protease production in Staphylococcus epidermidis: a comparative study of the effects of specific growth rate in biofilm and planktonic culture. Microbiology. 1994 Jan;140(Pt 1):153–157. [PubMed]
  • Ferrari E, Henner DJ, Perego M, Hoch JA. Transcription of Bacillus subtilis subtilisin and expression of subtilisin in sporulation mutants. J Bacteriol. 1988 Jan;170(1):289–295. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hahn J, Kong L, Dubnau D. The regulation of competence transcription factor synthesis constitutes a critical control point in the regulation of competence in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1994 Sep;176(18):5753–5761. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hamoen LW, Eshuis H, Jongbloed J, Venema G, van Sinderen D. A small gene, designated comS, located within the coding region of the fourth amino acid-activation domain of srfA, is required for competence development in Bacillus subtilis. Mol Microbiol. 1995 Jan;15(1):55–63. [PubMed]
  • Hughes DA. Signal transduction. Histidine kinases hog the limelight. Nature. 1994 May 19;369(6477):187–188. [PubMed]
  • Igo MM, Ninfa AJ, Stock JB, Silhavy TJ. Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of a bacterial transcriptional activator by a transmembrane receptor. Genes Dev. 1989 Nov;3(11):1725–1734. [PubMed]
  • Klier A, Msadek T, Rapoport G. Positive regulation in the gram-positive bacterium: Bacillus subtilis. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1992;46:429–459. [PubMed]
  • Kong L, Dubnau D. Regulation of competence-specific gene expression by Mec-mediated protein-protein interaction in Bacillus subtilis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jun 21;91(13):5793–5797. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Krüger E, Völker U, Hecker M. Stress induction of clpC in Bacillus subtilis and its involvement in stress tolerance. J Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;176(11):3360–3367. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kunst F, Msadek T, Bignon J, Rapoport G. The DegS/DegU and ComP/ComA two-component systems are part of a network controlling degradative enzyme synthesis and competence in Bacillus subtilis. Res Microbiol. 1994 Jun-Aug;145(5-6):393–402. [PubMed]
  • Maeda T, Wurgler-Murphy SM, Saito H. A two-component system that regulates an osmosensing MAP kinase cascade in yeast. Nature. 1994 May 19;369(6477):242–245. [PubMed]
  • Msadek T, Kunst F, Klier A, Rapoport G. DegS-DegU and ComP-ComA modulator-effector pairs control expression of the Bacillus subtilis pleiotropic regulatory gene degQ. J Bacteriol. 1991 Apr;173(7):2366–2377. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Msadek T, Kunst F, Rapoport G. MecB of Bacillus subtilis, a member of the ClpC ATPase family, is a pleiotropic regulator controlling competence gene expression and growth at high temperature. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Jun 21;91(13):5788–5792. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ogura M, Kawata-Mukai M, Itaya M, Takio K, Tanaka T. Multiple copies of the proB gene enhance degS-dependent extracellular protease production in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1994 Sep;176(18):5673–5680. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • O'Reilly M, Woodson K, Dowds BC, Devine KM. The citrulline biosynthetic operon, argC-F, and a ribose transport operon, rbs, from Bacillus subtilis are negatively regulated by Spo0A. Mol Microbiol. 1994 Jan;11(1):87–98. [PubMed]
  • Potts M. Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes. Microbiol Rev. 1994 Dec;58(4):755–805. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Strauch MA, Hoch JA. Transition-state regulators: sentinels of Bacillus subtilis post-exponential gene expression. Mol Microbiol. 1993 Feb;7(3):337–342. [PubMed]
  • Swanson RV, Alex LA, Simon MI. Histidine and aspartate phosphorylation: two-component systems and the limits of homology. Trends Biochem Sci. 1994 Nov;19(11):485–490. [PubMed]
  • van Sinderen D, Venema G. comK acts as an autoregulatory control switch in the signal transduction route to competence in Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1994 Sep;176(18):5762–5770. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Völker U, Mach H, Schmid R, Hecker M. Stress proteins and cross-protection by heat shock and salt stress in Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Oct;138(10):2125–2135. [PubMed]
  • Whatmore AM, Chudek JA, Reed RH. The effects of osmotic upshock on the intracellular solute pools of Bacillus subtilis. J Gen Microbiol. 1990 Dec;136(12):2527–2535. [PubMed]
  • Yang M, Ferrari E, Chen E, Henner DJ. Identification of the pleiotropic sacQ gene of Bacillus subtilis. J Bacteriol. 1986 Apr;166(1):113–119. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...