• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jbacterPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalJB ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
J Bacteriol. Apr 1995; 177(7): 1683–1691.
PMCID: PMC176793

Tar-dependent and -independent pattern formation by Salmonella typhimurium.


When Salmonella typhimurium cells were allowed to swarm on either a minimal or complex semisolid medium, patterns of cell aggregates were formed (depending on the thickness of the medium). No patterns were observed with nonchemotactic mutants. The patterns in a minimal medium were not formed by a mutant in the aspartate receptor for chemotaxis (Tar) or by wild-type cells in the presence of alpha-methyl-D,L-aspartate (an aspartate analog), thus resembling the patterns observed earlier in Escherichia coli (E. O. Budrene and H. C. Berg, Nature [London] 349:630-633, 1991) and S. typhimurium (E. O. Budrene and H. C. Berg, Abstracts of Conference II on Bacterial Locomotion and Signal Transduction, 1993). Distinctively, the patterns in a complex medium had a different morphology and, more importantly, were Tar independent. Furthermore, mutations in any one of the genes encoding the methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors (tsr, tar, trg, or tcp) did not prevent the pattern formation. Addition of saturating concentrations of the ligands of these receptors to wild-type cells did not prevent the pattern formation as well. A tar tsr tcp triple mutant also formed the patterns. Similar results (no negative effect on pattern formation) were obtained with a ptsI mutant (defective in chemotaxis mediated by the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate:phosphotransferase system [PTS]) and with addition of mannitol (a PTS ligand) to wild-type cells. It therefore appears that at least two different pathways are involved in the patterns formed by S. typhimurium: Tar dependent and Tar independent. Like the Tar-dependent patterns observed by Budrene and Berg, the Tar-independent patterns could be triggered by H(2)O(2), suggesting that both pathways of pattern formation may be triggered by oxidative stress.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (1.0M).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Adler J. Chemotaxis in bacteria. Science. 1966 Aug 12;153(3737):708–716. [PubMed]
  • Adler J. A method for measuring chemotaxis and use of the method to determine optimum conditions for chemotaxis by Escherichia coli. J Gen Microbiol. 1973 Jan;74(1):77–91. [PubMed]
  • Adler J. Chemotaxis in bacteria. Harvey Lect. 1978;72:195–230. [PubMed]
  • Aswad D, Koshland DE., Jr Isolation, characterization and complementation of Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis mutants. J Mol Biol. 1975 Sep 15;97(2):225–235. [PubMed]
  • Bourret RB, Borkovich KA, Simon MI. Signal transduction pathways involving protein phosphorylation in prokaryotes. Annu Rev Biochem. 1991;60:401–441. [PubMed]
  • Budrene EO, Berg HC. Complex patterns formed by motile cells of Escherichia coli. Nature. 1991 Feb 14;349(6310):630–633. [PubMed]
  • Devreotes P. Dictyostelium discoideum: a model system for cell-cell interactions in development. Science. 1989 Sep 8;245(4922):1054–1058. [PubMed]
  • Eisenbach M, Constantinou C, Aloni H, Shinitzky M. Repellents for Escherichia coli operate neither by changing membrane fluidity nor by being sensed by periplasmic receptors during chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1990 Sep;172(9):5218–5224. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Glagolev AN. Reception of the energy level in bacterial taxis. J Theor Biol. 1980 Jan 21;82(2):171–185. [PubMed]
  • Hazelbauer GL, Berg HC, Matsumura P. Bacterial motility and signal transduction. Cell. 1993 Apr 9;73(1):15–22. [PubMed]
  • Hirota N, Matsuura S, Mochizuki N, Mutoh N, Imae Y. Use of lipophilic cation-permeable mutants for measurement of transmembrane electrical potential in metabolizing cells of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1981 Nov;148(2):399–405. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Imae Y, Oosawa K, Mizuno T, Kihara M, Macnab RM. Phenol: a complex chemoeffector in bacterial chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jan;169(1):371–379. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • KAISER AD, HOGNESS DS. The transformation of Escherichia coli with deoxyribonucleic acid isolated from bacteriophage lambda-dg. J Mol Biol. 1960 Dec;2:392–415. [PubMed]
  • Khan S, Castellano F, Spudich JL, McCray JA, Goody RS, Reid GP, Trentham DR. Excitatory signaling in bacterial probed by caged chemoeffectors. Biophys J. 1993 Dec;65(6):2368–2382. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kim SK, Kaiser D, Kuspa A. Control of cell density and pattern by intercellular signaling in Myxococcus development. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1992;46:117–139. [PubMed]
  • Kincaid RL. Signaling mechanisms in microorganisms: common themes in the evolution of signal transduction pathways. Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res. 1991;23:165–184. [PubMed]
  • Lengeler JW, Vogler AP. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial chemotaxis towards PTS-carbohydrates. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 1989 Jun;5(1-2):81–92. [PubMed]
  • Lukat GS, Stock JB. Response regulation in bacterial chemotaxis. J Cell Biochem. 1993 Jan;51(1):41–46. [PubMed]
  • Macnab R, Koshland DE., Jr Bacterial motility and chemotaxis: light-induced tumbling response and visualization of individual flagella. J Mol Biol. 1974 Apr 15;84(3):399–406. [PubMed]
  • Oosawa K, Imae Y. Glycerol and ethylene glycol: members of a new class of repellents of Escherichia coli chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1983 Apr;154(1):104–112. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oosawa K, Imae Y. Demethylation of methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins in Escherichia coli induced by the repellents glycerol and ethylene glycol. J Bacteriol. 1984 Feb;157(2):576–581. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parkinson JS. Complementation analysis and deletion mapping of Escherichia coli mutants defective in chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1978 Jul;135(1):45–53. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Parkinson JS, Kofoid EC. Communication modules in bacterial signaling proteins. Annu Rev Genet. 1992;26:71–112. [PubMed]
  • Rubik BA, Koshland DE., Jr Potentiation, desensitization, and inversion of response in bacterial sensing of chemical stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Jun;75(6):2820–2824. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shioi J, Dang CV, Taylor BL. Oxygen as attractant and repellent in bacterial chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1987 Jul;169(7):3118–3123. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shioi J, Taylor BL. Oxygen taxis and proton motive force in Salmonella typhimurium. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10983–10988. [PubMed]
  • Shioi J, Tribhuwan RC, Berg ST, Taylor BL. Signal transduction in chemotaxis to oxygen in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1988 Dec;170(12):5507–5511. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stock JB, Stock AM, Mottonen JM. Signal transduction in bacteria. Nature. 1990 Mar 29;344(6265):395–400. [PubMed]
  • Stock JB, Surette MG, McCleary WR, Stock AM. Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 5;267(28):19753–19756. [PubMed]
  • Taylor BL. Role of proton motive force in sensory transduction in bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 1983;37:551–573. [PubMed]
  • Taylor BL, Koshland DE., Jr Intrinsic and extrinsic light responses of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1975 Aug;123(2):557–569. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Taylor BL, Miller JB, Warrick HM, Koshland DE., Jr Electron acceptor taxis and blue light effect on bacterial chemotaxis. J Bacteriol. 1979 Nov;140(2):567–573. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Warrick HM, Taylor BL, Koshland DE., Jr Chemotactic mechanism of Salmonella typhimurium: preliminary mapping and characterization of mutants. J Bacteriol. 1977 Apr;130(1):223–231. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Bacteriology are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...