Logo of straninfSexually Transmitted InfectionsVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Sex Transm Infect. Feb 2005; 81(1): 67–72.
PMCID: PMC1763741

Mycoplasma genitalium: an organism commonly associated with cervicitis among west African sex workers


Objectives: To identify the contribution of Mycoplasma genitalium to the aetiology of cervicitis in sub-Saharan Africa and its relative importance in the overall burden of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers (FSW).

Methods: The study population consisted of FSW recruited in Ghana and Bénin during the initial visit of a randomised controlled trial. A questionnaire was administered, a pelvic examination carried out, and cervical samples obtained for detection of M genitalium, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Clinical signs potentially indicating cervicitis were cervical discharge, pus on the cervical swab, bleeding after sampling, and inflammatory cervix.

Results: Among 826 FSW, 26.3% were infected with M genitalium. N gonorrhoeae was strongly and independently associated with each of the four signs of cervicitis (adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 4.1 to 6.0). The AOR for C trachomatis were intermediate (1.3–4.1) and the AOR for M genitalium were lower (between 1.6 and 1.8) but statistically significant (p[less-than-or-eq, slant]0.05) for each sign.

Conclusions: M genitalium is weakly associated with signs of cervicitis in west African FSW but is highly prevalent.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (90K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Taylor-Robinson D, Horner PJ. The role of Mycoplasma genitalium in non-gonococcal urethritis. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Aug;77(4):229–231. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Horner P, Thomas B, Gilroy CB, Egger M, Taylor-Robinson D. Role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in acute and chronic nongonococcal urethritis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 1;32(7):995–1003. [PubMed]
  • Pépin J, Sobéla F, Deslandes S, Alary M, Wegner K, Khonde N, Kintin F, Kamuragiye A, Sylla M, Zerbo PJ, et al. Etiology of urethral discharge in West Africa: the role of Mycoplasma genitalium and Trichomonas vaginalis. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79(2):118–126. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Morency P, Dubois MJ, Grésenguet G, Frost E, Mâsse B, Deslandes S, Somsé P, Samory A, Mberyo-Yaah F, Pépin J. Aetiology of urethral discharge in Bangui, Central African Republic. Sex Transm Infect. 2001 Apr;77(2):125–129. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Uno M, Deguchi T, Komeda H, Hayasaki M, Iida M, Nagatani M, Kawada Y. Mycoplasma genitalium in the cervices of Japanese women. Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):284–286. [PubMed]
  • Manhart Lisa E, Critchlow Cathy W, Holmes King K, Dutro Susan M, Eschenbach David A, Stevens Claire E, Totten Patricia A. Mucopurulent cervicitis and Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis. 2003 Feb 15;187(4):650–657. [PubMed]
  • Casin Isabelle, Vexiau-Robert Dominique, De La Salmonière Pauline, Eche Aline, Grandry Bernadette, Janier Michel. High prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in the lower genitourinary tract of women attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Paris, France. Sex Transm Dis. 2002 Jun;29(6):353–359. [PubMed]
  • Cohen Craig R, Manhart Lisa E, Bukusi Elizabeth A, Astete Sabina, Brunham Robert C, Holmes King K, Sinei Samuel K, Bwayo Job J, Totten Patricia A. Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and acute endometritis. Lancet. 2002 Mar 2;359(9308):765–766. [PubMed]
  • Simms I, Eastick K, Mallinson H, Thomas K, Gokhale R, Hay P, Herring A, Rogers PA. Associations between Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Sex Transm Infect. 2003 Apr;79(2):154–156. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Labbé A-C, Frost E, Deslandes S, Mendonça AP, Alves AC, Pépin J. Mycoplasma genitalium is not associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in Guinea-Bissau. Sex Transm Infect. 2002 Aug;78(4):289–291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Diemert David J, Libman Michael D, Lebel Pierre. Confirmation by 16S rRNA PCR of the COBAS AMPLICOR CT/NG test for diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in a low-prevalence population. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Nov;40(11):4056–4059. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • HILL AB. THE ENVIRONMENT AND DISEASE: ASSOCIATION OR CAUSATION? Proc R Soc Med. 1965 May;58:295–300. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tully JG, Taylor-Robinson D, Rose DL, Furr PM, Graham CE, Barile MF. Urogenital challenge of primate species with Mycoplasma genitalium and characteristics of infection induced in chimpanzees. J Infect Dis. 1986 Jun;153(6):1046–1054. [PubMed]
  • Alary Michel, Mukenge-Tshibaka Léonard, Bernier France, Geraldo Nassirou, Lowndes Catherine M, Meda Honoré, Gnintoungbè Cyriaque A B, Anagonou Séverin, Joly Jean R. Decline in the prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases among female sex workers in Cotonou, Benin, 1993-1999. AIDS. 2002 Feb 15;16(3):463–470. [PubMed]
  • Van Damme Lut, Ramjee Gita, Alary Michel, Vuylsteke Bea, Chandeying Verapol, Rees Helen, Sirivongrangson Pachara, Mukenge-Tshibaka Léonard, Ettiègne-Traoré Virginie, Uaheowitchai Charn, et al. Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002 Sep 28;360(9338):971–977. [PubMed]
  • Morison L, Weiss HA, Buvé A, Caraël M, Abega SC, Kaona F, Kanhonou L, Chege J, Hayes RJ. Commercial sex and the spread of HIV in four cities in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2001 Aug;15 (Suppl 4):S61–S69. [PubMed]
  • Buvé A, Weiss HA, Laga M, Van Dyck E, Musonda R, Zekeng L, Kahindo M, Anagonou S, Morison L, Robinson NJ, et al. The epidemiology of gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection and syphilis in four African cities. AIDS. 2001 Aug;15 (Suppl 4):S79–S88. [PubMed]
  • Brunham RC, Plummer FA. A general model of sexually transmitted disease epidemiology and its implications for control. Med Clin North Am. 1990 Nov;74(6):1339–1352. [PubMed]
  • Fonck K, Kaul R, Kimani J, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Ronald AR, Plummer FA, Kirui P, Bwayo JJ, Ngugi EN, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of monthly azithromycin prophylaxis to prevent sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 in Kenyan sex workers: study design and baseline findings. Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Dec;11(12):804–811. [PubMed]
  • Riedner G, Rusizoka M, Hoffmann O, Nichombe F, Lyamuya E, Mmbando D, Maboko L, Hay P, Todd J, Hayes R, et al. Baseline survey of sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania. Sex Transm Infect. 2003 Oct;79(5):382–387. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Williams Brian G, Taljaard Dirk, Campbell Catherine M, Gouws Eleanor, Ndhlovu Lewis, Van Dam Johannes, Caraël Michel, Auvert Bertran. Changing patterns of knowledge, reported behaviour and sexually transmitted infections in a South African gold mining community. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26;17(14):2099–2107. [PubMed]
  • Behets Frieda M T F, Rasolofomanana Justin Ranjalahy, Van Damme Kathleen, Vaovola Georgine, Andriamiadana Jocelyne, Ranaivo Adeline, McClamroch Kristi, Dallabetta Gina, Van Dam Johannes, Rasamilalao Désiré, et al. Evidence-based treatment guidelines for sexually transmitted infections developed with and for female sex workers. Trop Med Int Health. 2003 Mar;8(3):251–258. [PubMed]
  • Côté Anne-Marie, Sobela François, Dzokoto Agnes, Nzambi Khonde, Asamoah-Adu Comfort, Labbé Annie-Claude, Mâsse Benoit, Mensah Joyce, Frost Eric, Pépin Jacques. Transactional sex is the driving force in the dynamics of HIV in Accra, Ghana. AIDS. 2004 Apr 9;18(6):917–925. [PubMed]
  • Lowndes CM, Alary M, Gnintoungbé CA, Bédard E, Mukenge L, Geraldo N, Jossou P, Lafia E, Bernier F, Baganizi E, et al. Management of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV prevention in men at high risk: targeting clients and non-paying sexual partners of female sex workers in Benin. AIDS. 2000 Nov 10;14(16):2523–2534. [PubMed]
  • Perez G, Skurnick JH, Denny TN, Stephens R, Kennedy CA, Regivick N, Nahmias A, Lee FK, Lo SC, Wang RY, et al. Herpes simplex type II and Mycoplasma genitalium as risk factors for heterosexual HIV transmission: report from the heterosexual HIV transmission study. Int J Infect Dis. 1998 Jul-Sep;3(1):5–11. [PubMed]
  • Wi T, Mesola V, Manalastas R, Tuazon C, Mugrditchian DS, Perine P, Ghee A, Holmes KK, Whittington WL. Syndromic approach to detection of gonococcal and chlamydial infections among female sex workers in two Philippine cities. Sex Transm Infect. 1998 Jun;74 (Suppl 1):S118–S122. [PubMed]
  • Pépin J, Deslandes S, Khonde N, Kintin DF, Diakité S, Sylla M, Méda H, Sobéla F, Asamoah-Adu C, Agyarko-Poku T, et al. Low prevalence of cervical infections in women with vaginal discharge in west Africa: implications for syndromic management. Sex Transm Infect. 2004 Jun;80(3):230–235. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Sexually Transmitted Infections are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...