Logo of straninfSexually Transmitted InfectionsVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Sex Transm Infect. 2004 Feb; 80(1): 8–11.
PMCID: PMC1758381

Managing recurrent bacterial vaginosis

Abstract

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most frequently found condition of the female genital tract. It increases a woman's risk of acquiring HIV, is associated with increased complications in pregnancy, and may be involved in the pathogenesis of pelvic inflammatory disease. Yet there are many unanswered questions about its aetiology, making management of recurrent infection difficult and often idiosyncratic. This paper discusses the current knowledge and possible management of recurrent BV.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (168K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Cook RL, Redondo-Lopez V, Schmitt C, Meriwether C, Sobel JD. Clinical, microbiological, and biochemical factors in recurrent bacterial vaginosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 Apr;30(4):870–877. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hay PE, Ugwumadu A, Chowns J. Sex, thrush and bacterial vaginosis. Int J STD AIDS. 1997 Oct;8(10):603–608. [PubMed]
  • Larsson PG. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Int J STD AIDS. 1992 Jul-Aug;3(4):239–247. [PubMed]
  • Ralph SG, Rutherford AJ, Wilson JD. Influence of bacterial vaginosis on conception and miscarriage in the first trimester: cohort study. BMJ. 1999 Jul 24;319(7204):220–223. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Goldenberg RL, Klebanoff MA, Nugent R, Krohn MA, Hillier S, Andrews WW. Bacterial colonization of the vagina during pregnancy in four ethnic groups. Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1996 May;174(5):1618–1621. [PubMed]
  • Hellberg D, Nilsson S, Mårdh PA. Bacterial vaginosis and smoking. Int J STD AIDS. 2000 Sep;11(9):603–606. [PubMed]
  • Avonts D, Sercu M, Heyerick P, Vandermeeren I, Meheus A, Piot P. Incidence of uncomplicated genital infections in women using oral contraception or an intrauterine device: a prospective study. Sex Transm Dis. 1990 Jan-Mar;17(1):23–29. [PubMed]
  • Nilsson U, Hellberg D, Shoubnikova M, Nilsson S, Mårdh PA. Sexual behavior risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex Transm Dis. 1997 May;24(5):241–246. [PubMed]
  • Potter J. Should sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis receive treatment? Br J Gen Pract. 1999 Nov;49(448):913–918. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Antonio MA, Hawes SE, Hillier SL. The identification of vaginal Lactobacillus species and the demographic and microbiologic characteristics of women colonized by these species. J Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;180(6):1950–1956. [PubMed]
  • Klebanoff SJ, Hillier SL, Eschenbach DA, Waltersdorph AM. Control of the microbial flora of the vagina by H2O2-generating lactobacilli. J Infect Dis. 1991 Jul;164(1):94–100. [PubMed]
  • Rosenstein IJ, Fontaine EA, Morgan DJ, Sheehan M, Lamont RF, Taylor-Robinson D. Relationship between hydrogen peroxide-producing strains of lactobacilli and vaginosis-associated bacterial species in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1997 Jul;16(7):517–522. [PubMed]
  • Eschenbach DA, Thwin SS, Patton DL, Hooton TM, Stapleton AE, Agnew K, Winter C, Meier A, Stamm WE. Influence of the normal menstrual cycle on vaginal tissue, discharge, and microflora. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jun;30(6):901–907. [PubMed]
  • Vallor AC, Antonio MA, Hawes SE, Hillier SL. Factors associated with acquisition of, or persistent colonization by, vaginal lactobacilli: role of hydrogen peroxide production. J Infect Dis. 2001 Dec 1;184(11):1431–1436. [PubMed]
  • Boskey ER, Telsch KM, Whaley KJ, Moench TR, Cone RA. Acid production by vaginal flora in vitro is consistent with the rate and extent of vaginal acidification. Infect Immun. 1999 Oct;67(10):5170–5175. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McLean NW, McGroarty JA. Growth inhibition of metronidazole-susceptible and metronidazole-resistant strains of Gardnerella vaginalis by Lactobacilli in vitro. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996 Mar;62(3):1089–1092. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Andreu A, Stapleton AE, Fennell CL, Hillier SL, Stamm WE. Hemagglutination, adherence, and surface properties of vaginal Lactobacillus species. J Infect Dis. 1995 May;171(5):1237–1243. [PubMed]
  • GARDNER HL, DUKES CD. Haemophilus vaginalis vaginitis: a newly defined specific infection previously classified non-specific vaginitis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1955 May;69(5):962–976. [PubMed]
  • Pybus V, Onderdonk AB. Evidence for a commensal, symbiotic relationship between Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia involving ammonia: potential significance for bacterial vaginosis. J Infect Dis. 1997 Feb;175(2):406–413. [PubMed]
  • Hallén A, Jarstrand C, Påhlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis. 1992 May-Jun;19(3):146–148. [PubMed]
  • Reid G, Millsap K, Bruce AW. Implantation of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus into vagina. Lancet. 1994 Oct 29;344(8931):1229–1229. [PubMed]
  • Reid G, Beuerman D, Heinemann C, Bruce AW. Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001 Dec;32(1):37–41. [PubMed]
  • Reid Gregor, Charbonneau Duane, Erb Julie, Kochanowski Barbara, Beuerman Dee, Poehner Russ, Bruce Andrew W. Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003 Mar 20;35(2):131–134. [PubMed]
  • Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, Pokka T, Koskela M, Uhari M. Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women. BMJ. 2001 Jun 30;322(7302):1571–1571. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Osset J, Bartolomé RM, García E, Andreu A. Assessment of the capacity of Lactobacillus to inhibit the growth of uropathogens and block their adhesion to vaginal epithelial cells. J Infect Dis. 2001 Feb 1;183(3):485–491. [PubMed]
  • Andersch B, Lindell D, Dahlén I, Brandberg A. Bacterial vaginosis and the effect of intermittent prophylactic treatment with an acid lactate gel. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1990;30(2):114–119. [PubMed]
  • Hay P. Recurrent Bacterial Vaginosis. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2000 Dec;2(6):506–512. [PubMed]
  • Joesoef MR, Schmid GP, Hillier SL. Bacterial vaginosis: review of treatment options and potential clinical indications for therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Jan;28 (Suppl 1):S57–S65. [PubMed]
  • Milani Massimo, Barcellona Eliana, Agnello Antonella. Efficacy of the combination of 2 g oral tinidazole and acidic buffering vaginal gel in comparison with vaginal clindamycin alone in bacterial vaginosis: a randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled trial. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Jul 1;109(1):67–71. [PubMed]

Articles from Sexually Transmitted Infections are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...