• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of annrheumdAnnals of the Rheumatic DiseasesVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Ann Rheum Dis. Jul 2001; 60(7): 641–649.
PMCID: PMC1753749

Guidelines for musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (293K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Gibbon WW, Wakefield RJ. Ultrasound in inflammatory disease. Radiol Clin North Am. 1999 Jul;37(4):633–651. [PubMed]
  • Grassi W, Cervini C. Ultrasonography in rheumatology: an evolving technique. Ann Rheum Dis. 1998 May;57(5):268–271. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wakefield RJ, Gibbon WW, Emery P. The current status of ultrasonography in rheumatology. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999 Mar;38(3):195–198. [PubMed]
  • Manger B, Kalden JR. Joint and connective tissue ultrasonography--a rheumatologic bedside procedure? A German experience. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Jun;38(6):736–742. [PubMed]
  • Manger B, Backhaus M. Ultraschalldiagnostik bei rheumatischen/entzündlichen Gelenkerkrankungen. Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich. 1997 Jul;91(4):341–345. [PubMed]
  • Grassi W, Tittarelli E, Pirani O, Avaltroni D, Cervini C. Ultrasound examination of metacarpophalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol. 1993;22(5):243–247. [PubMed]
  • Grassi W, Lamanna G, Farina A, Cervini C. Sonographic imaging of normal and osteoarthritic cartilage. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;28(6):398–403. [PubMed]
  • Backhaus M, Kamradt T, Sandrock D, Loreck D, Fritz J, Wolf KJ, Raber H, Hamm B, Burmester GR, Bollow M. Arthritis of the finger joints: a comprehensive approach comparing conventional radiography, scintigraphy, ultrasound, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;42(6):1232–1245. [PubMed]
  • Grassi W, Lamanna G, Farina A, Cervini C. Synovitis of small joints: sonographic guided diagnostic and therapeutic approach. Ann Rheum Dis. 1999 Oct;58(10):595–597. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hau M, Schultz H, Tony HP, Keberle M, Jahns R, Haerten R, Jenett M. Evaluation of pannus and vascularization of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints in rheumatoid arthritis by high-resolution ultrasound (multidimensional linear array). Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Nov;42(11):2303–2308. [PubMed]
  • Swen WA, Jacobs JW, Hubach PC, Klasens JH, Algra PR, Bijlsma JW. Comparison of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of partial tears of finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000 Jan;39(1):55–62. [PubMed]
  • Swen WA, Jacobs JW, Neve WC, Bal D, Bijlsma JW. Is sonography performed by the rheumatologist as useful as arthrography executed by the radiologist for the assessment of full thickness rotator cuff tears? J Rheumatol. 1998 Sep;25(9):1800–1806. [PubMed]
  • Swen WA, Jacobs JW, Algra PR, Manoliu RA, Rijkmans J, Willems WJ, Bijlsma JW. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging equivalent for the assessment of full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Oct;42(10):2231–2238. [PubMed]
  • Grassi W, Tittarelli E, Blasetti P, Pirani O, Cervini C. Finger tendon involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Evaluation with high-frequency sonography. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Jun;38(6):786–794. [PubMed]
  • Leeb BF, Stenzel I, Czembirek H, Smolen JS. Diagnostic use of office-based ultrasound. Baker's cyst of the right knee joint. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Jun;38(6):859–861. [PubMed]

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Anterior transverse scan in neutral position at the bicipital groove. h = humerus; t = biceps tendon; d = deltoid muscle.
Figure 2
Anterior transverse scan in maximal internal rotation of the shoulder. h = humerus; t = supraspinatus tendon; d = deltoid muscle.
Figure 3
Anterior humeroradial longitudinal scan at the elbow. h = humerus; r = radius; m = muscles; ° = articular cartilage
Figure 4
Anterior transverse scan at the distal humeral epiphysis. h = humerus; ° = articular cartilage; m = muscles.
Figure 5
Posterior transverse scan at the distal humeral epiphysis. h = humerus; ° = articular cartilage; m = triceps muscle.
Figure 6
Volar transverse scan at the carpal tunnel. r = radius; n = median nerve; t = flexor tendons.
Figure 7
Dorsal transverse scan at the metacarpal head. mh = metacarpal head; t = extensor tendon.
Figure 8
Palmar longitudinal scan at the metacarpophalangeal joint. * = joint cavity; ° = articular cartilage; pp = proximal phalanx; mh = metacarpal head; t = flexor tendon. ...
Figure 9
Palmar longitudinal scan at the distal interphalangeal joint. * = joint cavity; dp = proximal phalanx; mp = middle phalanx; t = flexor tendon.
Figure 10
Palmar transverse scan at the metacarpal head. mh = metacarpal head; ° = articular cartilage; t = flexor tendon.
Figure 11
Anterior longitudinal scan at the hip. a = acetabulum; f = femur; * = joint cavity; m = muscles.
Figure 12
Suprapatellar transverse scan in maximal flexion. f = femur; ° = articular cartilage.
Figure 13
Anterior longitudinal scan at the ankle. tib = tibia; tal = talus; ° = articular cartilage.
Figure 14
Posterior longitudinal scan at the heel. t = achilles tendon; cal = calcaneus; k = Kager's fat pat.
Figure 15
Dorsal longitudinal scan at the first toe. mh = metatarsal head; ; pp = proximal phalanx; t = extensor tendon; * = joint cavity; ° = articular cartilage.

Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...