• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of annrheumdAnnals of the Rheumatic DiseasesVisit this articleSubmit a manuscriptReceive email alertsContact usBMJ
Ann Rheum Dis. May 2000; 59(5): 338–341.
PMCID: PMC1753144

The oxidative metabolism of circulating phagocytes in ankylosing spondylitis: determination by whole blood chemiluminescence


OBJECTIVE—Superoxide anion radicals within the human body are regarded as a major cause of inflammation. However, their role in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) has not been well identified. This study aimed at investigating the relation between AS and the oxidative metabolism of phagocytes in whole blood.
METHODS—24 patients with classic AS were examined to determine their clinical status; complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP) were determined, and levels of the superoxide anion radicals in the patients with AS and 21 healthy subjects were assessed by the ultraweak chemiluminescence method. Subsequently, the relation between this disease and phagocytes was examined by using N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) stimulants.
RESULTS—In clinical assessments, patients with AS had abnormally raised serum CRP (>10 mg/l) and ESR (>15 mm/1st h) levels. In contrast with healthy subjects, patients with AS had significantly increased rates of superoxide anion radical production in their whole blood either in the resting state or with either fMLP or PMA stimulation. In addition, chemiluminescence maximum light intensity was significantly higher in patients with AS than in healthy subjects after fMLP or PMA stimulation.
CONCLUSIONS—Our results suggest that the phagocytes of patients with AS are partly activated in the resting state, and are sensitive to fMLP or PMA stimulation. The priming of phagocytes in the bloodstream is likely to be a causative factor in the onset of AS.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (127K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Brewerton DA, Hart FD, Nicholls A, Caffrey M, James DC, Sturrock RD. Ankylosing spondylitis and HL-A 27. Lancet. 1973 Apr 28;1(7809):904–907. [PubMed]
  • Mäki-Ikola O, Hällgren R, Kanerud L, Feltelius N, Knutsson L, Granfors K. Enhanced jejunal production of antibodies to Klebsiella and other Enterobacteria in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997 Jul;56(7):421–425. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yu DT, Choo SY, Schaack T. Molecular mimicry in HLA-B27-related arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Oct 1;111(7):581–591. [PubMed]
  • Tiwana H, Walmsley RS, Wilson C, Yiannakou JY, Ciclitira PJ, Wakefield AJ, Ebringer A. Characterization of the humoral immune response to Klebsiella species in inflammatory bowel disease and ankylosing spondylitis. Br J Rheumatol. 1998 May;37(5):525–531. [PubMed]
  • Nurcombe HL, Bucknall RC, Edwards SW. Neutrophils isolated from the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: priming and activation in vivo. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Mar;50(3):147–153. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lu FJ, Lin JT, Wang HP, Huang WC. A simple, sensitive, non-stimulated photon counting system for detection of superoxide anion in whole blood. Experientia. 1996 Feb 15;52(2):141–144. [PubMed]
  • el Abbouyi A, Paul JL, Roch-Arveiller M, Moachon L, Dougados M, Giroud JP, Amor B, Raichvarg D. Blood polymorphonuclear behavior in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1988 Oct-Dec;6(4):401–403. [PubMed]
  • Miller C, Russell AS. The generation of superoxide anions by polymorphonuclear leucocytes from patients with ankylosing spondylitis in response to the stimulant f-met-leu-phe. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1986 Apr-Jun;4(2):135–137. [PubMed]
  • Ristola M, Leirisalo-Repo M, Repo H. Determination of oxygen radical production in spondyloarthropathies by whole blood chemiluminescence. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Nov;50(11):782–786. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wendling D, Didier JM, Vuitton DA. The phagocyte oxidative metabolism function in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatol Int. 1991;11(4-5):187–189. [PubMed]
  • Biasi D, Carletto A, Caramaschi P, Bellavite P, Andrioli G, Caraffi M, Pacor ML, Bambara LM. Neutrophil functions, spondylarthropathies and HLA-B27: a study of 43 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1995 Sep-Oct;13(5):623–627. [PubMed]
  • Okuyama M, Sakon M, Kambayashi J, Kawasaki T, Monden M. Involvement of protein phosphatase 2A in PKC-independent pathway of neutrophil superoxide generation by fMLP. J Cell Biochem. 1996 Feb;60(2):279–288. [PubMed]
  • Gratacós J, Collado A, Filella X, Sanmartí R, Cañete J, Llena J, Molina R, Ballesta A, Muñoz-Gómez J. Serum cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma) in ankylosing spondylitis: a close correlation between serum IL-6 and disease activity and severity. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Oct;33(10):927–931. [PubMed]
  • Tutuncu ZN, Bilgie A, Kennedy LG, Calin A. Interleukin-6, acute phase reactants and clinical status in ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994 Jun;53(6):425–426. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cunnane G, Bresnihan B, FitzGerald O. Immunohistologic analysis of peripheral joint disease in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Jan;41(1):180–182. [PubMed]

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Comparisons of superoxide anion radicals in whole blood between one patient with AS and one healthy subject using the lucigenin enhanced ultraweak chemiluminescence method. 0.2 ml of heparinised blood was mixed with 0.1 ml of phosphate ...

Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...