• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of annrheumdAnnals of the Rheumatic DiseasesCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Ann Rheum Dis. Apr 1999; 58(4): 201–207.
PMCID: PMC1752858

Prevalence of hip osteoarthritis in Iceland

Abstract

OBJECTIVE—To assess the prevalence of primary hip osteoarthritis (OA) in Iceland. To compare the prevalence of primary hip OA in Iceland with published rates of primary hip OA for related Scandinavian populations.
METHODS—Roentgenographs were examined of 1530 Icelandic people 35 years or older (653 males, 877 females) subjected to colon radiography during the years 1990-1996. The radiographs examined represent approximately 40% of all colon radiographs taken in Iceland during this period. After exclusion of non-primary hip OA cases, the minimum hip joint space was measured with a mm ruler. Presence of hip OA was defined as a minimum joint space of 2.5 mm or less on an anteroposterior radiograph. Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter and intraobserver variability of assessment of mm joint space were 0.91 and 0.95, respectively.
RESULTS—Of the 1517 people included, 227 hips in 165 patients (77 men, 88 women) were diagnosed as having radiological primary hip OA. The mean age at colon examination for these patients was 68 (35-89) years. The overall prevalence of coxarthrosis among all examined patients 35 years and older was 10.8% (12% for men, 10% for women), rising from 2% at 35-39 years to 35.4% for those 85 years or older. If the population structure (age and sex distribution) for those older than 35 years in Iceland was used to standardise prevalence for both Iceland and south Sweden (using previously published data for south Sweden), the age and sex standardised prevalence of hip OA for those older than 35 years in Iceland was 8%, compared with 1.2% for south Sweden.
CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of radiological primary hip OA is very high in Iceland, and in excess of fivefold higher than the prevalence found by using similar techniques in studies on related populations in southern Scandinavia. The rate difference is particularly notable for those younger than 70 years.

Keywords: hip; osteoarthritis; Iceland

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (126K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Danielsson L. Incidence of osteoarthritis of the hip (coxarthrosis). Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1966 Mar-Apr;45:67–72. [PubMed]
  • Lawrence JS, Bremner JM, Bier F. Osteo-arthrosis. Prevalence in the population and relationship between symptoms and x-ray changes. Ann Rheum Dis. 1966 Jan;25(1):1–24. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wilcock GK. The prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the hip requiring total hip replacement in the elderly. Int J Epidemiol. 1979 Sep;8(3):247–250. [PubMed]
  • Jørring K. Osteoarthritis of the hip. Epidemiology and clinical role. Acta Orthop Scand. 1980 Jun;51(3):523–530. [PubMed]
  • Danielsson L, Lindberg H, Nilsson B. Prevalence of coxarthrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984 Dec;(191):110–115. [PubMed]
  • Bergström G, Bjelle A, Sorensen LB, Sundh V, Svanborg A. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chondrocalcinosis and gouty arthritis at age 79. J Rheumatol. 1986 Jun;13(3):527–534. [PubMed]
  • Lawrence RC, Hochberg MC, Kelsey JL, McDuffie FC, Medsger TA, Jr, Felts WR, Shulman LE. Estimates of the prevalence of selected arthritic and musculoskeletal diseases in the United States. J Rheumatol. 1989 Apr;16(4):427–441. [PubMed]
  • Bagge E, Bjelle A, Edén S, Svanborg A. Osteoarthritis in the elderly: clinical and radiological findings in 79 and 85 year olds. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 Aug;50(8):535–539. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Forsberg K, Nilsson BE. Coxarthrosis on the island of Gotland. Increased prevalence in a rural population. Acta Orthop Scand. 1992 Feb;63(1):1–3. [PubMed]
  • Lindberg H, Roos H, Gärdsell P. Prevalence of coxarthrosis in former soccer players. 286 players compared with matched controls. Acta Orthop Scand. 1993 Apr;64(2):165–167. [PubMed]
  • Croft P, Cooper C, Wickham C, Coggon D. Defining osteoarthritis of the hip for epidemiologic studies. Am J Epidemiol. 1990 Sep;132(3):514–522. [PubMed]
  • Danielsson L, Lindberg H. Prevalence of coxarthrosis in an urban population during four decades. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1997 Sep;(342):106–110. [PubMed]
  • Felson DT. Epidemiology of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Epidemiol Rev. 1988;10:1–28. [PubMed]
  • KELLGREN JH, LAWRENCE JS. Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1957 Dec;16(4):494–502. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Croft P, Cooper C, Wickham C, Coggon D. Osteoarthritis of the hip and acetabular dysplasia. Ann Rheum Dis. 1991 May;50(5):308–310. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spector TD, Cooper C. Radiographic assessment of osteoarthritis in population studies: whither Kellgren and Lawrence? Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1993 Oct;1(4):203–206. [PubMed]
  • Spector TD, Hochberg MC. Methodological problems in the epidemiological study of osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994 Feb;53(2):143–146. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hart DJ, Spector TD. The classification and assessment of osteoarthritis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1995 May;9(2):407–432. [PubMed]
  • Lane NE, Kremer LB. Radiographic indices for osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1995 May;21(2):379–394. [PubMed]
  • Nevitt MC. Definition of hip osteoarthritis for epidemiological studies. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996 Sep;55(9):652–655. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Williams CJ, Jimenez SA. Heredity, genes and osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1993 Aug;19(3):523–543. [PubMed]
  • Hoaglund FT, Oishi CS, Gialamas GG. Extreme variations in racial rates of total hip arthroplasty for primary coxarthrosis: a population-based study in San Francisco. Ann Rheum Dis. 1995 Feb;54(2):107–110. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cicuttini FM, Spector TD. Genetics of osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996 Sep;55(9):665–667. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Spector TD, Cicuttini F, Baker J, Loughlin J, Hart D. Genetic influences on osteoarthritis in women: a twin study. BMJ. 1996 Apr 13;312(7036):940–943. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hopper J. Commentary: genes for osteoarthritis: interpreting twin data. BMJ. 1996 Apr 13;312(7036):943–944. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chitnavis J, Sinsheimer JS, Clipsham K, Loughlin J, Sykes B, Burge PD, Carr AJ. Genetic influences in end-stage osteoarthritis. Sibling risks of hip and knee replacement for idiopathic osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997 Jul;79(4):660–664. [PubMed]
  • Meulenbelt I, Bijkerk C, de Wildt SC, Miedema HS, Valkenburg HA, Breedveld FC, Pols HA, Te Koppele JM, Sloos VF, Hofman A, et al. Investigation of the association of the CRTM and CRTL1 genes with radiographically evident osteoarthritis in subjects from the Rotterdam study. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Oct;40(10):1760–1765. [PubMed]
  • Johnsson R, Lidgren L. Incidence of hip replacement in southern Sweden. Acta Orthop Scand. 1987 Jun;58(3):226–230. [PubMed]
  • Lindberg H, Danielsson LG. The relation between labor and coxarthrosis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1984 Dec;(191):159–161. [PubMed]
  • Croft P. The occurrence of osteoarthritis outside Europe. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996 Sep;55(9):661–664. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Conrozier T, Lequesne MG, Tron AM, Mathieu P, Berdah L, Vignon E. The effects of position on the radiographic joint space in osteoarthritis of the hip. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 1997 Jan;5(1):17–22. [PubMed]
  • Lindberg H, Nilsson BE. Coinciding morbidity in patients with coxarthrosis. An epidemiological study of roentgen examinations. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 1985;104(2):82–84. [PubMed]
  • Caan BJ, Coates AO, Slattery ML, Potter JD, Quesenberry CP, Jr, Edwards SM. Body size and the risk of colon cancer in a large case-control study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998 Feb;22(2):178–184. [PubMed]
  • Fredensborg N, Nilsson BE. The joint space in normal hip radiographs. Radiology. 1978 Feb;126(2):325–326. [PubMed]
  • Hirsch R, Fernandes RJ, Pillemer SR, Hochberg MC, Lane NE, Altman RD, Bloch DA, Knowler WC, Bennett PH. Hip osteoarthritis prevalence estimates by three radiographic scoring systems. Arthritis Rheum. 1998 Feb;41(2):361–368. [PubMed]
  • Jacobsson B, Dalén N, Tjörnstrand B. Coxarthrosis and labour. Int Orthop. 1987;11(4):311–313. [PubMed]
  • Axmacher B, Lindberg H. Coxarthrosis in farmers. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1993 Feb;(287):82–86. [PubMed]
  • Vingård E, Alfredsson L, Goldie I, Hogstedt C. Occupation and osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee: a register-based cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 1991 Dec;20(4):1025–1031. [PubMed]

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Histogram of hip joint space distribution measured on 1517 colon radiographs from Iceland. The vertical axis denotes the proportion of hips. The size class of 0.0 mm includes 49 hips with arthroplasty resulting from primary hip ...
Figure 2
Hip joint space (mm) by age groups for men and women. Bars denote 95% confidence intervals.
Figure 3
Hip OA prevalence in relation to age in Iceland and Malmö, Sweden, assessed from colon radiographs. Data points represent observed values, lines represent predicted curve fits with r2 greater than 0.9, broken lines represent 95% confidence ...
Figure 4
Predicted age related ratios of prevalence of hip OA between Iceland and Malmö, Sweden. The prevalence data used for calculation of age related ratios are the values predicted from the curve fits in figure 3. A cubic spline fit was made to the ...

Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...