Logo of iaiPermissionsJournals.ASM.orgJournalIAI ArticleJournal InfoAuthorsReviewers
Infect Immun. May 1997; 65(5): 1962–1966.
PMCID: PMC175254

Infection of the ferret stomach by isogenic flagellar mutant strains of Helicobacter mustelae.


Helicobacter mustelae, like Helicobacter pylori, possesses two flagellin proteins, FlaA and FlaB. Isogenic mutant strains of H. mustelae have been constructed by disruption of the flaA or flaB gene with a kanamycin resistance cassette or by introduction of both a kanamycin and a chloramphenicol resistance gene to produce a double mutant. To determine whether one or both flagellin proteins are necessary for colonization and persistence of infection with H. mustelae, 19 ferrets, specific pathogen free for H. mustelae, were given either the HMF1 flaA::km (weakly motile), ATCC 43772 flaB::km (moderately motile), or HMF1 flaA::cat flaB::km (non-motile) mutant strain, the wild-type parent strains, or sterile broth. Gastric tissue samples were obtained during sequential gastric biopsies beginning at 3 weeks postinoculation and ending at necropsy at 3 months postinoculation. H. mustelae infection status was determined by culture, histology, and serology. The wild-type parent strains of H. mustelae infected all ferrets at all time points. The double-mutant strain was unable to colonize; the flaA and flaB single-mutant strains were able to initially colonize at a low level and establish persistent infection with increasing numbers of organisms over time. The severity of gastritis produced by infection with these strains of H. mustelae correlated with the number of organisms present in the gastric mucosa. Flagellar motility is an important virulence factor for colonization and pathogenesis in the H. mustelae ferret model.

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (409K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Eaton KA, Morgan DR, Krakowka S. Campylobacter pylori virulence factors in gnotobiotic piglets. Infect Immun. 1989 Apr;57(4):1119–1125. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Eaton KA, Suerbaum S, Josenhans C, Krakowka S. Colonization of gnotobiotic piglets by Helicobacter pylori deficient in two flagellin genes. Infect Immun. 1996 Jul;64(7):2445–2448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Cabot EB, Taylor NS, Laraway R. Gastric colonization by Campylobacter pylori subsp. mustelae in ferrets. Infect Immun. 1988 Nov;56(11):2994–2996. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Correa P, Taylor NS, Lee A, Otto G, Murphy JC, Rose R. Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastritis in ferrets. An animal model of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in humans. Gastroenterology. 1990 Aug;99(2):352–361. [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Correa P, Taylor NS, Zavala D, Fontham E, Janney F, Rodriguez E, Hunter F, Diavolitsis S. Campylobacter pylori-associated gastritis and immune response in a population at increased risk of gastric carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Jul;84(7):775–781. [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Edrise BM, Cabot EB, Beaucage C, Murphy JC, Prostak KS. Campylobacter-like organisms isolated from gastric mucosa of ferrets. Am J Vet Res. 1986 Feb;47(2):236–239. [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Lee A. Gastric campylobacter-like organisms: their role in gastric disease of laboratory animals. Lab Anim Sci. 1989 Nov;39(6):543–553. [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Otto G, Murphy JC, Taylor NS, Lee A. Gastric colonization of the ferret with Helicobacter species: natural and experimental infections. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Jul-Aug;13 (Suppl 8):S671–S680. [PubMed]
  • Fox JG, Otto G, Taylor NS, Rosenblad W, Murphy JC. Helicobacter mustelae-induced gastritis and elevated gastric pH in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Infect Immun. 1991 Jun;59(6):1875–1880. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hazell SL, Borody TJ, Gal A, Lee A. Campylobacter pyloridis gastritis I: Detection of urease as a marker of bacterial colonization and gastritis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;82(4):292–296. [PubMed]
  • Hazell SL, Lee A, Brady L, Hennessy W. Campylobacter pyloridis and gastritis: association with intercellular spaces and adaptation to an environment of mucus as important factors in colonization of the gastric epithelium. J Infect Dis. 1986 Apr;153(4):658–663. [PubMed]
  • Josenhans C, Labigne A, Suerbaum S. Comparative ultrastructural and functional studies of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flagellin mutants: both flagellin subunits, FlaA and FlaB, are necessary for full motility in Helicobacter species. J Bacteriol. 1995 Jun;177(11):3010–3020. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kostrzynska M, Betts JD, Austin JW, Trust TJ. Identification, characterization, and spatial localization of two flagellin species in Helicobacter pylori flagella. J Bacteriol. 1991 Feb;173(3):937–946. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee A, Fox J, Hazell S. Pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori: a perspective. Infect Immun. 1993 May;61(5):1601–1610. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Leying H, Suerbaum S, Geis G, Haas R. Cloning and genetic characterization of a Helicobacter pylori flagellin gene. Mol Microbiol. 1992 Oct;6(19):2863–2874. [PubMed]
  • Luke CJ, Kubiak E, Cockayne A, Elliott TS, Penn CW. Identification of flagellar and associated polypeptides of Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1990 Sep 1;59(1-2):225–230. [PubMed]
  • Suerbaum S, Geis G, Josenhans C, Opferkuch W. Biochemical studies of Helicobacter mustelae fatty acid composition and flagella. Infect Immun. 1992 Apr;60(4):1695–1698. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Suerbaum S, Josenhans C, Labigne A. Cloning and genetic characterization of the Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter mustelae flaB flagellin genes and construction of H. pylori flaA- and flaB-negative mutants by electroporation-mediated allelic exchange. J Bacteriol. 1993 Jun;175(11):3278–3288. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Wallace JL. Possible mechanisms and mediators of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl. 1991;187:65–70. [PubMed]

Articles from Infection and Immunity are provided here courtesy of American Society for Microbiology (ASM)


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...