• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of annrheumdAnnals of the Rheumatic DiseasesCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
Ann Rheum Dis. Jan 1998; 57(1): 20–24.
PMCID: PMC1752470

Weak association between subjective symptoms of and objective testing for dry eyes and dry mouth: results from a population based study

Abstract

OBJECTIVES—To determine associations between symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective evidence of lacrimal and salivary gland dysfunction in a population based sample. To determine associations between these elements and the presence of autoantibodies.
METHODS—A cross sectional population based survey. Subjects were interviewed and examined (Schirmer-1 test and unstimulated salivary flow) for the presence of dry eyes and mouth. Antibodies (anti-Ro [SS-A], anti-La [SS-B], rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody) were measured.
RESULTS—341 subjects were examined. Twenty four per cent had dry eye symptoms, 29% dry mouth symptoms, and 14% both. There was only a weak association between the presence of oral or ocular symptoms and their respective test results. Associations were strongest between dry mouth symptoms and positive test results, and in subjects under 55 years of age. There was no association between the presence of autoantibodies and either symptoms or signs of dry eyes or dry mouth.
CONCLUSION—Only weak associations were found between self reported symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth and objective measures said to define Sjögrens syndrome in the general population. The clinical significance of these symptoms in the community needs reappraisal.

Keywords: Sjögrens syndrome; Schirmer's test; keratoconjunctivitis sicca; xerostomia

Full Text

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (120K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Vitali C, Moutsopoulos HM, Bombardieri S. The European Community Study Group on diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome. Sensitivity and specificity of tests for ocular and oral involvement in Sjögren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1994 Oct;53(10):637–647. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cho P, Yap M. Schirmer test. II. A clinical study of its repeatability. Optom Vis Sci. 1993 Feb;70(2):157–159. [PubMed]
  • Paschides CA, Kitsios G, Karakostas KX, Psillas C, Moutsopoulos HM. Evaluation of tear break-up time, Schirmer's-I test and rose bengal staining as confirmatory tests for keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989 Mar-Apr;7(2):155–157. [PubMed]
  • Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Moutsopoulos HM, Balestrieri G, Bencivelli W, Bernstein RM, Bjerrum KB, Braga S, Coll J, de Vita S, et al. Preliminary criteria for the classification of Sjögren's syndrome. Results of a prospective concerted action supported by the European Community. Arthritis Rheum. 1993 Mar;36(3):340–347. [PubMed]
  • Vitali C, Bombardieri S, Moutsopoulos HM, Coll J, Gerli R, Hatron PY, Kater L, Konttinen YT, Manthorpe R, Meyer O, et al. Assessment of the European classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome in a series of clinically defined cases: results of a prospective multicentre study. The European Study Group on Diagnostic Criteria for Sjögren's Syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1996 Feb;55(2):116–121. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drosos AA, Andonopoulos AP, Costopoulos JS, Papadimitriou CS, Moutsopoulos HM. Prevalence of primary Sjögren's syndrome in an elderly population. Br J Rheumatol. 1988 Apr;27(2):123–127. [PubMed]
  • Montecucco C, Bestagno M, Cerino A, Caporali R, Carnevale R, Longhi M, Pedrini MA, Astaldi-Ricotti GC. Anti-SSB/La antibodies in Sjögren's syndrome and related autoimmune diseases. Results of a quantitative immunoassay using a highly purified antigen. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989 Jan-Feb;7(1):5–11. [PubMed]
  • Harley JB, Alexander EL, Bias WB, Fox OF, Provost TT, Reichlin M, Yamagata H, Arnett FC. Anti-Ro (SS-A) and anti-La (SS-B) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum. 1986 Feb;29(2):196–206. [PubMed]
  • Venables PJ, Shattles W, Pease CT, Ellis JE, Charles PJ, Maini RN. Anti-La (SS-B): a diagnostic criterion for Sjögren's syndrome? Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1989 Mar-Apr;7(2):181–184. [PubMed]
  • Jacobsson L, Hansen BU, Manthorpe R, Hardgrave K, Neas B, Harley JB. Association of dry eyes and dry mouth with anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B autoantibodies in normal adults. Arthritis Rheum. 1992 Dec;35(12):1492–1501. [PubMed]

Figures and Tables

Figure 1
Combinations of ocular and oral symptoms. Numbers represent subjects classified as having symptoms of dry eyes (ocular) and dry mouth (oral).
Figure 2
Combination of ocular symptoms. Numbers represent subjects answering positively to each of the questions about dry eyes and dry mouth listed in table 1. "Dry eyes"= question 1a; "gritty eyes"= question 1b; "tear substitutes"= question 1c.
Figure 3
Combination of oral symptoms. "Dry mouth"= question 2a; "swollen glands"= question 2b; "drink with food"= question 2c.

Articles from Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...